The Phoenicians: Master Sea Traders Sometime around 1130 BC an Egyptian priest named Wen-Amon traveled to the Phoenician city of Byblos to buy cedarwood for a religious festival. The gods were apparently not looking after Wen-Amon, however, for midway through his voyage he was robbed of most of his gold. Worse, when he stepped ashore at Byblos the city's king, Zakar-Baal, refused to barter with him and told him to leave. But Wen-Amon was loath to return to Egypt without completing his mission, so he waited in the harbor at Byblos for his luck to change. For 29 days in a row he endured the same sharply-worded message from the king: "Get out [of] my harbor!" Phoenician Sailing Ship Tracing of a bas-relief at Nineveh depicting a Phoenician ship (~700 BC) On the thirtieth day, just when Wen-Amon had lost hope and was preparing to return home, the Phoenician King relented and granted him an audience. "I found the King," Wen-Amon writes, "sitting [in] his upper room, with his back turned to a window, so that the waves of the Great Syrian sea broke behind him." Taking out a scroll that recorded past transactions, King Zakar-Baal bluntly pointed out that he had stopped giving tribute to the Egyptians some time ago, and if Wen-Amon wanted timber, he had better pay for it. With the king's permission, Wen-Amon was allowed to dispatch a Phoenician messenger to carry word of his situation to his superiors in Egypt and to ask for more funds. In a few months he duly received several jars of gold and silver, twenty sacks of lentils, and hundreds of cowhides, ropes, and papyrus rolls, and many other goods. With these items he purchased his cedarwood and then made preparations to return home. The Phoenician Commercial Empire Wen-Amon's adventures, described in an Egyptian papyrus dating from about 1100 BC, provide us with a rare glimpse of the Phoenicians, the master sea traders of the ancient Mediterranean. A Semitic people related to the Hebrews, the Phoenicians were confined by more powerful neighbors to a narrow strip of land on the coast of Lebanon. Their homeland possessed few natural resources, but these the skilled Phoenician merchants and craftsmen turned to extraordinary effect. Out of the sand on their beaches the Phoenicians created superb glasswork, and from a kind of sea snail in nearby waters, the murex, they extracted a brilliant purple dye. Due to its rarity and expense, this dye became the color of royalty throughout the ancient world. From the cedar trees that carpeted nearby mountains—the same cedarwood that Wen-Amon came to purchase—Phoenician shipwrights built seaworthy sailing ships to transport their glasswork, dyes and other goods to Egypt, Greece, Anatolia, and the Aegean. Along their way they founded trading camps and developed sheltered harbors, and over time these grew into independent towns and cities. By the eighth century BC the Phoenician home cities of Tyre and Sidon were the hub of a commercial network that spanned the Mediterranean. Phoenician sailors journeyed to the limits of the known world in search of markets and raw materials. A Phoenician from Carthage, Hanno, sailed down the coast of West Africa, where he saw rivers infested with crocodiles and hippopotamuses, was terrified by nocturnal drumming in the jungle, and skirmished with a group of "wild people with hairy bodies" which his guide called Gorillas. In a three-year voyage, Phoenicians in the service of Pharaoh Necho of Egypt (610-595 BC) probably even sailed all the way around Africa—two thousand years before Vasco da Gama, the Portuguese navigator who is usually given credit for this difficult feat, was even born. We can only partly guess at the appearance of the ships that accomplished these feats of exploration, for no complete Phoenician shipwreck has yet been found. The Phoenicians and the Alphabet Most people who have heard of the Phoenicians have also heard that they invented the alphabet. This has been a common belief since ancient times, but it is not quite true. The Egyptians were actually the first to develop the beginnings of an alphabetic script, though they had little awareness of the value of their invention and largely ignored it. But the Egyptians may have passed the idea on to their neighbors in Syria and Palestine, some of whom later developed into the seafaring Phoenicians. Phoenician merchants then passed the alphabet on to the Greeks, who mistakenly gave them the credit for its invention.
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A colony of the Greeks of Thera, Cyrene was one of the principal cities in the Hellenic world. It was Romanized and remained a great capital until the earthquake of 365. A thousand years of history is written into its ruins, which have been famous since the 18th century. Grinus (they say), the son of Aesanius, a descendant of Theras, and king of the island of Thera, went to Delphi to offer a hecatomb on behalf of his native city. On Grinus consulting the oracle about sundry matters, the Pythoness gave him for answer, "that he should found a city in Libya." When the embassy returned to Thera, small account was taken of the oracle, as the Therans were quite ignorant where Libya was. Seven years passed from the utterance of the oracle, and not a drop of rain fell in Thera: all the trees in the island, except one, were killed with the drought. After a while, everything began to go wrong. Ignorant of the cause of their sufferings, they again sent to Delphi to inquire for what reason they were afflicted. The Pythoness in reply reminded them reproachfully "that if they and Battus would make a settlement at Cyrene in Libya, things would go better with them." So, as there was no help for it, they sent messengers to Crete, to inquire whether any of the Cretans, or of the strangers living amongst them, had ever travelled as far as Libya: and these messengers fell in with a man named Corobius, a dealer in purple dye. In answer to their inquiries, he told them that contrary winds had once carried him to Libya, where he had gone ashore on a certain island which was named Platea. So they hired this man's services, and took him back with them to Thera. A few persons then sailed from Thera to reconnoiter. Guided by Corobius to the island of Platea, they left him there with provisions for a certain number of months, and returned home with all speed to give their countrymen an account of the island. The Therans who had left Corobius at Platea, when they reached Thera, told their countrymen that they had colonized an island on the coast of Libya. They of Thera, upon this, resolved that men should be sent to join the colony from each of their seven districts, and that the brothers in every family should draw lots to determine who were to go. Upon this the Therans sent out Battus with two penteconters, and with these he proceeded to Libya; but within a little time, not knowing what else to do, the men returned and arrived back off Thera. The Therans, when they saw the vessels approaching, received them with showers of missiles, would not allow them to come near the shore, and ordered the men to sail back from whence they came. Thus compelled, they settled on Platea. In this place they continued two years, but at the end of that time, as their ill luck still followed them, they went in a body to Delphi, where they made complaint at the shrine to the effect that they prospered as poorly as before. Hereon the Pythoness made them the following answer: "Know you better than I, fair Libya abounding in fleeces? Better the stranger than he who has trod it ? Oh ! Clever Therans !" Battus and his friends, when they heard this, sailed back to Platea: it was plain the god would not hold them acquitted of the colony ,till they were absolutely in Libya. So they made a settlement on the mainland directly opposite Platea, fixing themselves at a place called Aziris. Here they remained six years, at the end of which time the Libyans induced them to move, promising that they would lead them to a better situation. So the Greeks left Aziris and were conducted by the Libyans towards the west, their journey being so arranged, by the calculation of their guides, that they passed in the night the most beautiful district of that whole country, which is the region called Irasa. The Libyans brought them to a spring, which goes by the name of Apollo's Fountain, and told them, "Here, Hellenes, is the proper place for you to settle; for here the sky leaks." During the lifetime of Battus, the founder of the colony, who reigned forty years, and during that of his son Arcesilaus, who reigned sixteen, the Cyreneans continued at the same level, neither more nor fewer in number than they were at the first. But in the reign of the third king, Battus, surnamed the Happy, the advice of the Pythoness brought Greeks from every quarter into Libya, to join the settlement. Thus a great multitude were collected together to Cyrene, and the Libyans of the neighborhood found themselves stripped of large portions of their lands.
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Akragas (modern Agrigento), a Greek colony located on the southern coast of Sicily, was founded in 582 bce by an expedition from Gela led by oikists Aristonous and Pystilos (Thucydides 6.4.4). Agrigento was founded on a plateau overlooking the sea, with two nearby rivers, the Hypsas and the Akragas, and a ridge to the north offering a degree of natural fortification. Its establishment took place around 582-580 BC and is attributed to Greek colonists from Gela, who named it Akragas. Akragas grew rapidly, becoming one of the richest and most famous of the Greek colonies of Magna Graecia. It came to prominence under the 6th-century tyrants Phalaris and Theron, and became a democracy after the overthrow of Theron's son Thrasydaeus. Although the city remained neutral in the conflict between Athens and Syracuse, its democracy was overthrown when the city was sacked by the Carthaginians in 406 BC. Akragas never fully recovered its former status, though it revived to some extent under Timoleon in the latter part of the 4th century. The city was disputed between the Romans and the Carthaginians during the First Punic War. The Romans laid siege to the city in 262 BC and captured it after defeating a Carthaginian relief force in 261 BC and sold the population into slavery. Although the Carthaginians recaptured the city in 255 BC the final peace settlement gave Punic Sicily and with it Akragas to Rome. It suffered badly during the Second Punic War (218-201 BC) when both Rome and Carthage fought to control it. The Romans eventually captured Akragas in 210 BC and renamed it Agrigentum, although it remained a largely Greek-speaking community for centuries thereafter. It became prosperous again under Roman rule and its inhabitants received full Roman citizenship following the death of Julius Caesar in 44 BC.
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Sanctuary of Astarte Tas Silġ (Malta) While sailing in the 'Great Sea" the Phoenicians came to Malta, they liked its central position and its safe, sheltered harbours, so, they decided to stay and colonize these Islands with them naturally, they brought their religion and their writing On the promontory of Tas Silġ overlooking Marsaxlokk, Marsascala and St. Thomas Bays, in the late 8 thor 7th century BCE, the Phoenicians establish a sanctuary to Astarte incorporating the apse and a standing stone/baetyl (1.3 m high) of a third millennium temple 42. The new temple was entered through a monumental entrance framing a rock slab carved to hold 3 standing stones/betyls. 43 Buhagiar reconstructs the temple based on the Ital-ian excavation reports. The main precinct of the new sacred compound centred round a quadrangular court to the immediate west of the prehistoric temple and was surrounded by a …Doric colonnade that stood on a stylobate…. There was a double row of columns on the north and south sides…. The courtyard was paved with ﬂag-stones while the colonnaded walk had a ﬂoor of a reddish cement compound of crushed pottery sherds and lime with an inlay of regularly spaced white marble tesserae…. The prehistoric temple was …transformed into the cella of the sanctuary…. The most important works centred round the transforma-tion of its entrance arrangement into a rectangular vestibule with a probable portico of square pilasters which gave a touch of monumentality to the en-semble. Between the 4th century BCE and 1st century CE, the addition of a portico, successive courtyard walls, plus rooms to the north and south enlarges and embellishes the temple complex.45 Numerous inscriptions identify Astarte as the venerated deity and the one who responds to prayers. An inscribed 4th 5th century BCE bone piece found in courtyard 8 reads : “To our lady Astart…this is the‛ bst who has dedicat-ed…son of b’lhls, son of k …[because she heard] the voice of his words.” A 2nd century BCE limestone bracket found in a large stone heap just outside the excavation site bears the inscription, “’ps-yaton has dedicated a small pillar(?) (brk ) to the lady (rbt ) Astarte.” Three inscriptions name Astart nn (“of Malta”) including one on a stone architectural element. This appellation also appears on early Maltese coins of the Roman period. From outside the enclosure wall, a cultic dump or midden consists of a thick layer of organic ash, presumably from sacriﬁcial remains, mixed with re-storable bowls, plates, rounded cooking pots, small cups, saucers, and a small number of imported amphorae. Engravings executed before ﬁring the pots dedicate the vessels to the deities Astarte and probably Tanit, with their names written out in full or abbreviated. On paleographic grounds, Ciasca dates the Astarte dedications to the 5th 2nd century BCE (none before 500 BCE) and the few “TT”/Tanit examples to the 3rd, 2nd or 2nd 1st century BCE. The midden’s ash, bones, and inscribed vessels allow us to reconstruct sacriﬁcial activity. Of the 30% of animal bones for which the species could be identiﬁed, 96% were of predominantly young sheep and goat and the remaining 4% were cattle. Representation of all parts of the animals, with a preponderance of the meaty fore-and hindquarters, testi ﬁes to the butchering and consumption of entire animals rather than select parts at the site. The fact that only 2% of bones display evidence of burning suggests a divine diet oboiled rather than roasted meat . Large pots with everted rims found in the dump, many inscribed “to Astarte,” were well-suited to boiling the sacriﬁcial offering. Faunal stud-ies also identiﬁed edible marine mollusks (96% of total are edible varieties of mollusks), perhaps part of the divine diet.
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The Riace bronzes (Italian Bronzi di Riace), also called the Riace Warriors, are two famous full-size Greek bronzes of naked bearded warriors, cast about 460--420 BC and found in the sea near Riace in 1972. The Bronzi are currently located at the Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia in the southern Italian city of Reggio Calabria, Italy.
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The cult of the love-goddess here goes back a long way - as at the Temple of Aphrodite on the summit of Acrocorith, the ancients believed in making men sweat for their free sex! There was a temple of Astarte, with sacred prostitution, here during the Phoenician occupation: it became the home of Venus Erycina after the Roman conquest in the first Punic War (around 250 BC). The original inhabitants were Elymians - neither Greek nor Carthaginian - and the city was probably founded from the Elymian centre at Segesta. The Romans were keen to exploit the supposed Elymian-Trojan connection, and in Virgil's Aeneid, Aeneas visits Eryx in Book 5. Aeneas forms an alliance with the king of Eryx, the wise Acestes, and after his father Anchises dies here, leaves the old and infirm in Eryx to proceed to Italy with a leaner fighting force. Before he left, he supposedly built the Temple to his mother Venus. There's not much surviving of the Temple of Venus, but the superb site is occupied by a castle (Castello di Venere). From Erice - even if you can't see Tunisia or Etna - the views are mightily impressive: to Castellamare del Golfo and Monte Cofano to the west, to the salt pans of Trapani, Motya and the Egadi Islands to the east.
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Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy. It was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks. At the 8th century BC, the Ancient Greeks expanded until reaching the area of Taranto and Salento in Magna Graecia. In the 5th and 4th centuries BC, the Greek settlement at Taras produced a distinctive style of pottery (Apulian vase painting). Apulia was an important area for the ancient Romans, who conquered it during the course of wars against the Samnites and against Pyrrhus in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC but also suffered a crushing defeat here in the battle of Cannae against Hannibal. However, after the Carthaginians left the region, the Romans captured the ports of Brindisi and Taranto, and established dominion over the region. During the Imperial age Apulia was a flourishing area for production of grain and oil, becoming the most important exporter to the Eastern provinces. After the fall of Rome, Apulia was held successively by the Goths, the Lombards and, from the 6th century onwards, the Byzantines. Bari became the capital of a province that extended to modern Basilicata, and was ruled by a catepano (governor), hence the name of Capitanata of the Barese neighbourhood. From 800 on, a Saracen presence was intermittent, but Apulia remained under the Byzantine authority, despite the region being mainly inhabited by Lombards until the 11th century, when the Normans conquered it with relative ease. Robert Guiscard set up the Duchy of Apulia in 1059. After the Norman conquest of Sicily in the late 11th century, Palermo replaced Melfi (just west of present day Apulia) as the center of Norman power. From the late 12th to early 13th centuries, it was a favorite residence of the Hohenstaufen emperors, notably Frederick II. A number of castles were built in the area by Frederick, including Castel del Monte. In 1734 there were the battle of Bitonto, a Spanish victory over Austrian forces. The coast was occupied at times by the Turks and by the Venetians. When Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554 they took an 7,000 slaves. The French also controlled the region in 1806--15, resulting in the abolition of feudalism and the reformation of the justice system. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy.
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(English subtitles available) The battle of Himera (autumn 480 BC) was a famous victory won by the Greeks of Syracuse over an invading Carthaginian army. The Carthaginians had landed at Panormus, on the northern coast of Sicily. The ancient sources given them 300,000 men under the command of Hamilcar (probably a significant exaggeration). The Carthaginians marched east from Panormus towards the city of Himera. Once there they built two camps - one on the coast to defend their ships and one for the main army. They then defeated the defenders of the city in a battle outside the walls and prepared for a siege. Theron of Akragas, who had recently expelled the tyrant of Himera, was in command of the defence of Himera. He called for help from Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse, who led a force of 50,000 infantry and 5,000 cavalry to Himera. Again this figure is probably exaggerated. Gelon built his own camp near the city, captured a large number of Carthaginian looters in the local area and prepared for a decisive battle. Diodorus gives the most detailed account of the battle. Gelon decided to try and trick the Carthaginians, burn their ships and if possible kill Hamilcar. By a stroke of luck Gelon's cavalry captured a messenger carrying a letter from the people of Selinus to Hamilcar in which they agreed to send a force of cavalry to the Carthaginian naval camp on the same day that Hamilcar was planning to be in the camp preparing a sacrifice to Poseidon. Gelon decided to take advantage of this stroke of luck by sending his own cavalry to ride around the area of the two armies and approach the Carthaginian camp from the direction of Selinus. They were to pretend to be the allies from Selinus, trick their way into the camp and then kill Hamilcar and burn the boats. At sunrise, just as Gelon's cavalry approached the naval camp, Gelon moved his main army out of camp and arrayed them in order of battle in front of the Carthaginian land camp. The Carthaginian commanders in the land camp led out their troops and a battle broke out between the two main armies. Meanwhile at the naval camp Gelon's cavalry successfully tricked the guards and got into the camp. They found Hamilcar at the site of the sacrifice, killed him and then set fire to the boats. The main battle was closely fought until the Carthaginians saw flames coming from their naval camp and began to hear rumours of Hamilcar's death. The same news greatly encouraged the Greeks. Herodotus gives a very different account of Hamilcar's death. In his version of the battle Hamilcar spent the day making sacrifices in a vain attempt to get good omens. When he saw that the battle was lost Hamilcar threw himself onto the fire being used for the sacrifices and was burnt to death. Polyaenus gives yet another account in his Stratagems. In his account Gelon didn't want to risk a battle, so he dressed Pediarchus, commander of his archers, in his cloths. Pediarchus and a group of arches dressed in white and with bows concealed in myrtle branches out to make a sacrifice, presumably on an altar between the armies. Hamilcar came out to offer his own sacrifice and was cut down by a shower of arrows. The battle took place in the autumn of 480 BC. Herodotus says that it took place on the same day as the battle of Salamis while Diodorus has it taking place on the same day as Thermopylae. The defeat at Himera ended Carthaginian interest in expanding their empire on Sicily for over seventy years, and they didn't return until 409 BC.
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(English subtitles available) The Battle of the Aegates Islands or Aegusa (Aegadian Islands, off the western coast of the island of Sicily, 10 March 241 BC) was the final naval battle fought between the fleets of Carthage and the Roman Republic during the First Punic War. The result was a decisive Roman victory which forced an end to the protracted conflict, to the advantage of Rome. The years preceding the battle were relatively quiet within the First Punic War. Rome lacked a fleet — the ships it had possessed at the beginning of the war had been largely destroyed in the Battle of Drepana and in the storm that followed. However, Carthage took little advantage of this situation. Hostilities between Roman and Carthaginian forces gradually stalled, becoming concentrated in small-scale land operations in Sicily. The Carthaginian general Hamilcar Barca was slow to build on his advantage on the island and, probably as a result, from 242 BC Rome eventually decided to build another fleet and regain naval supremacy. This resolution notwithstanding, after 20 years of war the finances of the Republic were in a calamitous state and the treasury was empty. A popular movement was formed to counter this difficulty in a typically Roman manner: wealthy citizens, either alone or in groups, decided to show their patriotism and finance the construction of one ship apiece. The result was a fleet of approximately 200 quinqueremes, built, equipped, and crewed without government expense. The new fleet was completed in 242 BC and entrusted to the consul Gaius Lutatius Catulus, assisted by the praetor Quintus Valerius Falto. The reversals of fortune and difficulties suffered in past naval defeats provided invaluable acquired experience. The Roman ships were now more resistant to adverse weather conditions, with the corvus having been abandoned. Catulus and Falto also endeavoured to drill the crews in manoeuvres and exercises before leaving secure waters. The result was a fleet at the peak of condition and fighting ability. In Carthage, meanwhile, the news of enemy activity was not left unanswered. A new Carthaginian fleet was also built, numbering about 250 warships (although probably undermanned), and launched in the Mediterranean under the command of Hanno (the general defeated at Agrigentum and Cape Ecnomus) Aegates Islands Catulus resumed the siege of the two Sicilian ports of Lilybaeum (at the western tip of Sicily, now called Marsala) and Drepana, and by blockading the harbours cut the connection to Carthage. The intent was seemingly to cut Hamilcar Barca's supply and communication lines. For the rest of the year Catulus waited for the Carthaginian response. The senate granted him a proconsulship for 241 BC. The Carthaginian fleet arrived to relieve the blockade the following year (241 BC). Hanno called a halt near the Aegates Islands to wait for a favourable breeze that would speed him to Lilybaeum. However, the Carthaginian fleet was spotted by Roman scouts and Catulus abandoned the blockade to meet his enemy. On the morning of March 10, the wind favoured the Carthaginians and Hanno immediately set sail. Catulus measured the risk of attacking with the wind in his bow versus the risk of letting Hanno reach Sicily to relieve Hamilcar Barca and Lilybaeum. Despite unfavourable conditions, the proconsul decided to intercept the Carthaginians and ordered his fleet to prepare for battle. He had the Roman ships stripped of their masts, sails and other unnecessary equipment in order to make them more seaworthy in the rough conditions. Catulus himself was unable to join the actual battle because of injuries suffered in an earlier engagement, so in the actual battle the ships were commanded by his second in command, Falto. In the ensuing battle the Romans enjoyed a far greater mobility, since their vessels were carrying only the bare necessities, while the Carthaginians were burdened with men, equipment and provisions. The Carthaginian crews were also hurriedly levied and inexperienced. The Romans quickly gained the upper hand, using their ships' greater manoeuvrability to ram the enemy vessels. About half of the Carthaginian fleet was either destroyed or captured. The rest were saved only by an abrupt change in the direction of the wind, allowing them to flee from the Romans. Several rams from both Roman and Phoenician ships have been found along with amphora from the cargos and helmets. End of the First Punic War Upon achieving decisive victory over the Carthaginian fleet, Catulus renewed the siege and captured Lilybaeum, isolating Barca and his army in Sicily, scattered among the few strongholds that Carthage still retained. Without the resources to build another fleet or to reinforce its land troops, Carthage admitted defeat and signed a peace treaty with Rome, bringing the First Punic War to a conclusion.
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Marco Antonio Bragadin, also Marcantonio Bragadin (21 April 1523 -- 17 August 1571) was a Venetian lawyer and military officer of the Republic of Venice. Bragadin joined the Fanti da Mar (marine infantry) Corps of the Republic of Venice. In 1569, he was appointed Captain-General of Famagusta in Cyprus and led the Venetian resistance to the Ottoman conquest that began in 1570. He was gruesomely killed in August 1571 after the Ottomans took the city, the fall of which signalled the end of Western presence in the Mediterranean island for the next three centuries.
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(English subtitles available) Croton's oekistes (founder) was Myscellus who came from the city of Rhypes in Achaea in the northern Peloponnese. He established the city in c. 710 BC and it soon became one of the most flourishing cities of Magna Graecia. Its inhabitants were famous for their physical strength and for the simple sobriety of their lives. From 588 BC onwards, Croton produced many generations of victors in the Olympics and the other Panhellenic Games, the most famous of whom was Milo of Croton. According to Herodotus (3.131), the physicians of Croton were considered the foremost among the Greeks, among which Democedes son of Calliphon was the most prominent in the 6th century BC. Accordingly, he traveled around Greece and ended up working in the court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos. After the tyrant was murdered, Democedes was captured by the Persians and brought to King Darius, curing him of a dislocated ankle. Democedes fame was, according to Herodotus, the one who prompted the prestige of Croton's physicians.Pythagoras founded his school, the Pythagoreans, at Croton c. 530 BC. Among his pupils were the early medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton and the philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer Philolaus. The Pythagoreans acquired considerable influence with the supreme council of one thousand by which the city was ruled. Sybaris was the rival of Croton until 510 BC, when Croton sent an army of one hundred thousand men, commanded by the wrestler Milo, against Sybaris and destroyed it. Shortly afterwards, however, an insurrection took place, by which the Pythagoreans were driven out and a democracy established. In 480 BC, Croton sent a ship in support of the Greeks at the Battle of Salamis (Herodotus 8.47), but the victory of Locri and Rhegium over Croton in the same year marked the beginning of its decline. It was replaced by Heraclea as headquarters of the Italiote League. Dionysius, the tyrant of Syracuse, aiming at hegemony in Magna Graecia, captured Croton in 379 BC and held it for twelve years. Croton was then occupied by the Bruttii, with the exception of the citadel, in which the chief inhabitants had taken refuge; these soon after surrendered, and were allowed to withdraw to Locri. In 295 BC, Croton fell to another Syracusan tyrant, Agathocles. When Pyrrhus invaded Italy (280-278, 275 BC), Croton was still a considerable city, with twelve miles (19 km) of walls, but after the Pyrrhic War, half the city was deserted (Livy 24.3). What was left of its population submitted to Rome in 277 BC. After the Battle of Cannae in the Second Punic War (216 BC), Croton revolted from Rome, and Hannibal made it his winter quarters for three years; it was not recaptured until 205 or 204 BC. In 194 BC, it became the site of a Roman colony. Little more is heard of it during the
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eccoci in azione durante alcuni momenti di #rievocazione tratti dai #misteri #eleusini Alessandra Conti, Daniele Leone, Alessandro Catania, Antonino Di Nolfo, Enrico Lupo, SAOS, Οργανοποιείον Παλμός - Palmos ancient Instruments video by P.I. The Phoenicians Archeo Cuisine Video of the Phoenicians cultural association, Agrigento - Archeo Cuisine. This is a moment of re-enactment to enter into the religious universe of ancient Greece, by some scenes from the myths, shown by the priests to the faithfuls, during the initiation rites of the Eleusinian mysteries (birth of Dionysus in the sieve, sacred wedding of the deities, procession of bidders) .. We want to thank the author of the video P. I. who generously offered us his precious work, Οργανοποιείον Παλμός - Palmos #ancient Instruments & the SAOS, the Greek brothers who have given us the use of their wonderful music: http://hfestion.wixsite.com/saos all the participating partners and Antonino Di Nolfo who gave us his property as a set, in the heart of the natural reserve of Torre Salsa, Siculiana, AG (Le Terre degli Avi).
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considerazioni finali sull'esperimento di archeo pizza e le farine di grani antichi siciliani. un pizzaiolo di grande esperienza che fa per la prima volta la pizza coi grani antichi siciliani (Molini Riggi, Caltanissetta) forniti da "Archeo Cuisine" Gastronomia Archeologica, Eventi e Turismo, Agrigento
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Archeo Cuisine (Gastronomia Archeologica e Turismo) & Diego Genova (La Trizzera, Pizzeria), Agrigento e lo sfincione fatto con le farine dei Molini Riggi, Caltanissetta
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Archeo Cuisine GASTRONOMIA ANTICA, Laboratori Didattici (per scuole e turisti) EVENTI, FESTE PRIVATE e Menù Turistici (su prenotazione) alla Valle dei Templi! www.archeocuisine.it Archeo Cuisine project Historical/Tourist Menus, Gastronomical Experimental Archaeology, Workshops, Events and Tourism in Agrigento アルケオ・クュシン・ギリシャ古代の料理 + シチリア島グルメツアー
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Cilento is an Italian geographical region of Campania in the central and southern part of the Province of Salerno and an important tourist area of southern Italy. The region is steeped in Greek mythology and legends, as in the names of some towns, which is also visible in the remains of the colonies of Velia (ancient Elea) and Paestum (ancient Poseidonia). Velia was also the seat of "Eleatics", a school of pre-Socratic philosophers as Parmenides, Zeno of Elea and Melissus of Samos).
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The temple of Demetra/Church of San Biagio in Agrigento & bothroi (rounded sacrificial altars). Demeter, Demetra in Italian, is the goddess of the harvest and agriculture.
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By Alessandra "Archeo Cuisine" Gastronomia Archeologica, Eventi e Turismo, Agrigento. Pizza di Grani Antichi Siciliani dei Molini Riggi, Caltanissetta (con la collaborazione di Diego Genova, La Trizzera)
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Archeo Cuisine project, making pizza with Sicilian ancient grains. Pizzeria La Trizzera & farine dei Molini Riggi di Caltanisetta. Esperimento di pizza antica fatta coi grani antichi siciliani dei Molini Riggi, Caltanissetta by "Archeo Cuisine" Gastronomia Archeologica, Eventi e Turismo, Agrigento
Views: 238 archeo atlas