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What is Business incubator?, Explain Business incubator, Define Business incubator
 
02:07
~~~ Business incubator ~~~ Title: What is Business incubator?, Explain Business incubator, Define Business incubator Created on: 2018-09-24 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_incubator ------ Description: A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. The National Business Incubation Association defines business incubators as a catalyst tool for either regional or national economic development. NBIA categorizes their members’ incubators by the following five incubator types: academic institutions; non-profit development corporations; for-profit property development ventures; venture capital firms, and combination of the above.Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to very small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs.Incubators also differ from the U.S. Small Business Administration's Small Business Development Centers in that they serve only selected clients. SBDCs are required by law to offer general business assistance to any company that contacts them for help. In addition, SBDCs work with any small business at any stage of development, not only startup companies. Many business incubation programs partner with their local SBDC to create a "one-stop shop" for entrepreneurial support.Within European Union countries there are different EU and state funded programs that offer support in form of consulting, mentoring, prototype creation and other services and co-funding for them. TecHub is one of examples for IT companies and ideas. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1284 Audioversity
What is Dictatorship of the proletariat?, Explain Dictatorship of the proletariat
 
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~~~ Dictatorship of the proletariat ~~~ Title: What is Dictatorship of the proletariat?, Explain Dictatorship of the proletariat Created on: 2018-08-27 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat ------ Description: In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power. According to this theory, it is the intermediate system between capitalism and communism, when the government is in the process of changing the ownership of the means of production from private to collective ownership, and the existence of any government implies the dictatorship of one social class over another. The term, coined by Joseph Weydemeyer, was adopted in the 19th century by the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; both of them argued that the short-lived Paris Commune, which ran the French capital for over two months in 1871 before being suppressed, was an example of the dictatorship of the proletariat. "Dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" is thus used as an antonym of "dictatorship of the proletariat".It is termed "dictatorship" because it retains the state apparatus as such, with its implements of force and oppression, but differs from the popular notion of dictatorship which Marxists despise as the selfish, immoral, irresponsible and unconstitutional political rule of one man. It instead implies a stage where there is complete "socialization of the major means of production", in other words planning of material production so as to serve social needs, provide for an effective right to work, education, health and housing for the masses and fuller development of science and technology so as to multiply material production to achieve greater social satisfaction. However, social division into classes still exists, but the proletariat become the dominant class and oppression is still used to suppress the bourgeois counter-revolution. There are two main trends for this political thought, yet both of them retain the state apparatus for its enforcement capabilities: Marxism–Leninism follows the ideas of Marxism and Leninism as interpreted by Vladimir Lenin's successor Joseph Stalin. It seeks to establish a vanguard party to lead a proletarian uprising, to assume state power on behalf of the proletariat and to construct a single-party socialist state representing a dictatorship of the proletariat, governed through the process of democratic centralism, which Lenin described as "diversity in discussion, unity in action". Marxism–Leninism forms the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam and was the official ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of the other ruling parties making up the Eastern Bloc. Libertarian Marxists, especially Luxemburgists, criticize Marxism–Leninism for its differences from orthodox Marxism and oppose the Leninist principle of democratic centralism and the Leninist strategy of vanguardism. Along with Trotskyists, they also oppose the use of a one-party state which they view as inherently undemocratic, although Trotskyists are still Bolsheviks, subscribing to vanguard party, democratic centralism and soviet democracy, seeing themselves as the true successors of Leninism. Rosa Luxemburg, a Marxist theorist, emphasized the role of the dictatorship of the proletariat as the rule of the whole class, representing the majority and not a single party, characterizing the dictatorship of the proletariat as a concept meant to expand democracy rather than reduce it as opposed to minority rule in the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, the only other class state power can reside in according to Marxist theory.Friedrich Hayek argued in the book The Road to Serfdom that the dictatorship of the proletariat would always result in violence and autocracy: "A true 'dictatorship of the proletariat', even if democratic in form, if it undertook centrally to direct the economic system, would probably destroy personal freedom as completely as any autocracy has ever done." ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 564 Audioversity
What is ICICI Bank? Explain ICICI Bank, Define ICICI Bank, Meaning of ICICI Bank
 
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~~~ ICICI Bank ~~~ Title: What is ICICI Bank? Explain ICICI Bank, Define ICICI Bank, Meaning of ICICI Bank Created on: 2018-09-27 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ICICI_Bank ------ Description: ICICI Bank is an Indian multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra, India, with its registered office in Vadodara. In 2014, it was the second largest bank in India in terms of assets and third in term of market capitalisation. It offers a wide range of banking products and financial services for corporate and retail customers through a variety of delivery channels and specialised subsidiaries in the areas of investment banking, life, non-life insurance, venture capital and asset management. The bank has a network of 4,450 branches and 13,995 ATMs in India, and has a presence in 19 countries including India.ICICI Bank is one of the Big Four banks of India, along with State Bank of India, Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank. The bank has subsidiaries in the United Kingdom and Canada; branches in United States, Singapore, Bahrain, Hong Kong, Sri Lanka, Qatar, Oman, Dubai International Finance Centre, China and South Africa; and representative offices in United Arab Emirates, Bangladesh, Malaysia and Indonesia. The company's UK subsidiary has also established branches in Belgium and Germany. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 2059 Audioversity
What is Lex mercatoria? Explain Lex mercatoria, Define Lex mercatoria, Meaning of Lex mercatoria
 
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~~~ Lex mercatoria ~~~ Title: What is Lex mercatoria? Explain Lex mercatoria, Define Lex mercatoria, Meaning of Lex mercatoria Created on: 2018-10-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lex_mercatoria ------ Description: Lex mercatoria , often referred to as "the Law Merchant" in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period. It evolved similar to English common law as a system of custom and best practice, which was enforced through a system of merchant courts along the main trade routes. It functioned as the international law of commerce. It emphasised contractual freedom and alienability of property, while shunning legal technicalities and deciding cases ex aequo et bono. A distinct feature was the reliance by merchants on a legal system developed and administered by them. States or local authorities seldom interfered, and did not interfere a lot in internal domestic trade. Under lex mercatoria trade flourished and states took in large amounts of taxation. In the last years new theories had changed the understanding of this medieval treatise considering it as proposal for legal reform or a document used for instructional purposes. These theories consider that the treatise cannot be described as a body of laws applicable in its time, but the desire of a legal scholar to improve and facilitate the litigation between merchants. The text is composed by 21 sections and an annex. The sections described procedural matters such as the presence of witnesses and the relation between this body of law and common law. It has been considered as a false statement to define this as a system exclusively based in custom, when there are structures and elements from the existent legal system, such as Ordinances and even concepts proper of the Romano-canonical procedure. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 704 Audioversity
What is Commonwealth of Nations?, Explain Commonwealth of Nations, Define Commonwealth of Nations
 
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~~~ Commonwealth of Nations ~~~ Title: What is Commonwealth of Nations?, Explain Commonwealth of Nations, Define Commonwealth of Nations Created on: 2018-10-14 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations ------ Description: The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.The Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was originally created as the British Commonwealth of Nations through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, and formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931. The current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, and established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Head of the Commonwealth. The Queen is head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, culture and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth covers more than 29,958,050 km2 , equivalent to 20% of the world's land area and spans all six inhabited continents. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 422 Audioversity
What is Cross-cultural psychology?, Explain Cross-cultural psychology
 
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~~~ Cross-cultural psychology ~~~ Title: What is Cross-cultural psychology?, Explain Cross-cultural psychology Created on: 2018-09-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-cultural_psychology ------ Description: Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions. Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend and develop psychology. Since psychology as an academic discipline was developed largely in North America and Europe, some psychologists became concerned that constructs accepted as universal were not as invariant as previously assumed, especially since many attempts to replicate notable experiments in other cultures had varying success. Since there are questions as to whether theories dealing with central themes, such as affect, cognition, conceptions of the self, and issues such as psychopathology, anxiety, and depression, may lack external validity when "exported" to other cultural contexts, cross-cultural psychology re-examines them using methodologies designed to factor in cultural differences so as to account for cultural variance. Although some critics have pointed to methodological flaws in cross-cultural psychological research and claim that serious shortcomings in the theoretical and methodological bases used impede rather than help the scientific search for universal principles in psychology, cross-cultural psychologists are turning more to the study of how differences occur, rather than searching for universals in the style of physics or chemistry.While cross-cultural psychology represented only a minor area of psychology prior to WWII, it began to grow in importance during the 1960s. In 1971, the interdisciplinary Society for Cross-Cultural Research was founded, and in 1972 the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology was established. Since then, this branch of psychology has continued to expand as there has been an increasing popularity of incorporating culture and diversity into studies of numerous psychological phenomena. Cross-cultural psychology is differentiated from cultural psychology, which refers to the branch of psychology that holds that human behavior is strongly influenced by cultural differences, meaning that psychological phenomena can only be compared with each other across cultures to a limited extent. In contrast, cross-cultural psychology includes a search for possible universals in behavior and mental processes. Cross-cultural psychology "can be thought of as a type research methodology, rather than an entirely separate field within psychology". In addition, cross-cultural psychology can be distinguished from international psychology which centers around the global expansion of psychology especially during recent decades. Nevertheless, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, and international psychology are united by a common concern for expanding psychology into a universal discipline capable of understanding psychological phenomena across cultures and in a global context. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 571 Audioversity
What is Perry Rhodan? Explain Perry Rhodan, Define Perry Rhodan, Meaning of Perry Rhodan
 
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~~~ Perry Rhodan ~~~ Title: What is Perry Rhodan? Explain Perry Rhodan, Define Perry Rhodan, Meaning of Perry Rhodan Created on: 2018-08-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry_Rhodan ------ Description: Perry Rhodan is the eponymous hero of a German science fiction novel series which has been published each week since 8 September 1961 in the 'Romanhefte' format by Pabel-Moewig Verlag, a subsidiary of Bauer Media Group. As of March 2018, almost 2950 booklet novels of the original series plus 850 spinoff novels of the sister series Atlan plus over 400 paperbacks and 200 hardcovers have been published, totalling over 300,000 pages. Having sold approximately two billion copies worldwide alone, , it is the most successful science fiction book series ever written. The first billion of worldwide sales was celebrated in 1986.The first 126 novels were translated into English and published by Ace Books between 1969 and 1978, with the same translations used for the British edition published by Futura Publications which issued only 39 novels. When Ace cancelled its translation of the series, translator Wendayne Ackerman self-published the following 19 novels and made them available by subscription only. Financial disputes with the German publishers led to the cancellation of the American translation in 1979. An attempt to revive the series in English was made in 1997–1998 by Vector Publications of the US which published translations of four issues from the current storyline being published in Germany at the time. The series and its spin-offs have captured a substantial fraction of the original German science fiction output and exert influence on many German writers in the field. The series is told in an arc storyline structure. An arc—called a "cycle"—would have anywhere from 25 to 100 issues devoted to it, similar subsequent cycles are referred to as a "grand-cycle".Matthias Rust, the then-19 year old aviator who landed his Cessna 172 aircraft on the Red Square in Moscow in 1987, has cited Perry Rhodan's adventures as his main inspiration to penetrate Soviet airspace. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 152 Audioversity
What is Computer-assisted language learning?, Explain Computer-assisted language learning
 
02:50
#Computer-assistedlanguagelearning #audioversity ~~~ Computer-assisted language learning ~~~ Title: What is Computer-assisted language learning?, Explain Computer-assisted language learning Created on: 2018-12-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning ------ Description: Computer-assisted language learning , British, or Computer-Aided Instruction /Computer-Aided Language Instruction , American, is briefly defined in a seminal work by Levy as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning". CALL embraces a wide range of information and communications technology applications and approaches to teaching and learning foreign languages, from the "traditional" drill-and-practice programs that characterised CALL in the 1960s and 1970s to more recent manifestations of CALL, e.g. as used in a virtual learning environment and Web-based distance learning. It also extends to the use of corpora and concordancers, interactive whiteboards, Computer-mediated communication , language learning in virtual worlds, and mobile-assisted language learning .The term CALI was in use before CALL, reflecting its origins as a subset of the general term CAI . CALI fell out of favour among language teachers, however, as it appeared to imply a teacher-centred approach , whereas language teachers are more inclined to prefer a student-centred approach, focusing on learning rather than instruction. CALL began to replace CALI in the early 1980s and it is now incorporated into the names of the growing number of professional associations worldwide. An alternative term, technology-enhanced language learning , also emerged around the early 1990s: e.g. the TELL Consortium project, University of Hull. The current philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student-centred materials that allow learners to work on their own. Such materials may be structured or unstructured, but they normally embody two important features: interactive learning and individualised learning. CALL is essentially a tool that helps teachers to facilitate the language learning process. It can be used to reinforce what has already been learned in the classroom or as a remedial tool to help learners who require additional support. The design of CALL materials generally takes into consideration principles of language pedagogy and methodology, which may be derived from different learning theories and second-language learning theories such as Stephen Krashen's monitor hypothesis. A combination of face-to-face teaching and CALL is usually referred to as blended learning. Blended learning is designed to increase learning potential and is more commonly found than pure CALL .See Davies et al. . See also Levy & Hubbard , who raise the question Why call CALL "CALL"? ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 427 Audioversity
What is Cosmological constant?, Explain Cosmological constant, Define Cosmological constant
 
01:46
~~~ Cosmological constant ~~~ Title: What is Cosmological constant?, Explain Cosmological constant, Define Cosmological constant Created on: 2018-08-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmological_constant ------ Description: In cosmology, the cosmological constant is the value of the energy density of the vacuum of space. It was originally introduced by Albert Einstein in 1917 as an addition to his theory of general relativity to "hold back gravity" and achieve a static universe, which was the accepted view at the time. Einstein abandoned the concept after Hubble's 1929 discovery that all galaxies outside the Local Group are moving away from each other, implying an overall expanding universe. From 1929 until the early 1990s, most cosmology researchers assumed the cosmological constant to be zero. Since the 1990s, several developments in observational cosmology, especially the discovery of the accelerating universe from distant supernovas in 1998 , have shown that around 68% of the mass–energy density of the universe can be attributed to dark energy. While dark energy is poorly understood at a fundamental level, the main required properties of dark energy are that it functions as a type of anti-gravity, it dilutes much more slowly than matter as the universe expands, and it clusters much more weakly than matter, or perhaps not at all. The cosmological constant is the simplest possible form of dark energy since it is constant in both space and time, and this leads to the current standard model of cosmology known as the Lambda-CDM model, which provides a good fit to many cosmological observations. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 134 Audioversity
What is Zero-point energy?, Explain Zero-point energy, Define Zero-point energy
 
02:50
~~~ Zero-point energy ~~~ Title: What is Zero-point energy?, Explain Zero-point energy, Define Zero-point energy Created on: 2018-10-07 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy ------ Description: Zero-point energy is the difference between the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have, and the classical minimum energy of the system. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. As well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. According to quantum field theory, the universe can be thought of not as isolated particles but continuous fluctuating fields: matter fields, whose quanta are fermions , and force fields, whose quanta are bosons . All these fields have zero-point energy. These fluctuating zero-point fields lead to a kind of reintroduction of an aether in physics, since some systems can detect the existence of this energy. However this aether cannot be thought of as a physical medium if it is to be Lorentz invariant such that there is no contradiction with Einstein's theory of special relativity.Physics currently lacks a full theoretical model for understanding zero-point energy; in particular the discrepancy between theorized and observed vacuum energy is a source of major contention. Physicists Richard Feynman and John Wheeler calculated the zero-point radiation of the vacuum to be an order of magnitude greater than nuclear energy, with a single light bulb containing enough energy to boil all the world's oceans. Yet according to Einstein's theory of general relativity any such energy would gravitate and the experimental evidence from both the expansion of the universe, dark energy and the Casimir effect show any such energy to be exceptionally weak. A popular proposal that attempts to address this issue is to say that the fermion field has a negative zero-point energy while the boson field has positive zero-point energy and thus these energies somehow cancel each other out. This idea would be true if supersymmetry were an exact symmetry of nature. However, the LHC at CERN has so far found no evidence to support supersymmetry. Moreover, it is known that if supersymmetry is valid at all, it is at most a broken symmetry, only true at very high energies, and no one has been able to show a theory where zero-point cancellations occur in the low energy universe we observe today. This discrepancy is known as the cosmological constant problem and it is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in physics. Many physicists believe that "the vacuum holds the key to a full understanding of nature". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 887 Audioversity
What is Utterance? Explain Utterance, Define Utterance, Meaning of Utterance
 
02:19
~~~ Utterance ~~~ Title: What is Utterance? Explain Utterance, Define Utterance, Meaning of Utterance Created on: 2018-10-23 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Utterance ------ Description: In spoken language analysis, an utterance is the smallest unit of speech. It is a continuous piece of speech beginning and ending with a clear pause. In the case of oral languages, it is generally but not always bounded by silence. Utterances do not exist in written language, only their representations do. They can be represented and delineated in written language in many ways. In oral/spoken language utterances have several features including paralinguistic features which are aspects of speech such as facial expression, gesture, and posture. Prosodic features include stress, intonation, and tone of voice, as well as ellipsis, which are words that the listener inserts in spoken language to fill gaps. Moreover, other aspects of utterances found in spoken languages are non-fluency features including: voiced/un-voiced pauses , tag questions, and false starts when someone begins their utterances again to correct themselves. Other features include: fillers ; accent/dialect; deictic expressions, which are utterances like "over there!" which need further explanation to be understood; simple conjunctions ; and colloquial lexis which are everyday informal words.Utterances that are portrayed in writing are planned, in contrast to utterances in improvised spoken language. In written language there are frameworks that are used to portray this type of language. Discourse structure is how the conversation is organized, in which adjacency pairs - an utterance and the answer to that utterance - are used. Discourse markers are used to organize conversation . Lexis denotes the words being used in a text or spoken; these words can create a semantic field. For example, a semantic field of love can be created with lexical choices such as adore, admire, and care. Grammar/syntax is another feature of language in general but also utterances, and pragmatics means that when utterances are spoken or written the meaning is not literal, as in sarcasm. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 286 Audioversity
What is George Grenville?, Explain George Grenville, Define George Grenville
 
01:47
~~~ George Grenville ~~~ Title: What is George Grenville?, Explain George Grenville, Define George Grenville Created on: 2018-08-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Grenville ------ Description: George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham. In 1754 Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, and Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister. His government tried to bring public spending under control and pursued an assertive foreign policy. His best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which instigated widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was later repealed. Grenville had increasingly strained relations with his colleagues and the King and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham. For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 220 Audioversity
What is Hereditary spastic paraplegia?, Explain Hereditary spastic paraplegia
 
02:06
~~~ Hereditary spastic paraplegia ~~~ Title: What is Hereditary spastic paraplegia?, Explain Hereditary spastic paraplegia Created on: 2018-10-23 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hereditary_spastic_paraplegia ------ Description: Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is a progressive gait disorder. The disease presents with progressive stiffness and contraction in the lower limbs. HSP is also known as hereditary spastic paraparesis, familial spastic paraplegia, French settlement disease, or Strumpell-Lorrain disease. The symptoms are a result of dysfunction of long axons in the spinal cord. The affected cells are the primary motor neurons; therefore, the disease is an upper motor neuron disease. HSP is not a form of cerebral palsy even though it physically may appear and behave much the same as spastic diplegia. The origin of HSP is different from cerebral palsy. Despite this, some of the same anti-spasticity medications used in spastic cerebral palsy are sometimes used to treat HSP symptoms. HSP is caused by defects in transport of proteins, structural proteins, cell maintaining proteins, lipids, and other substances through the cell. Long nerve fibers are affected because long distances make nerve cells particularly sensitive to defects in these mentioned mechanisms.The disease was first mentioned in 1876 by Adolph Seeligmüller, a German neurologist, who described a family of four affected children with spasticity. Further cases were described in 1883 by Adolph Strümpell, a German neurologist. Those cases were described more extensively in 1888 by Maurice Lorrain, a French physician. Due to their contribution in describing the disease, it is still named Strümpell-Lorrain disease in French speaking countries. The term hereditary spastic paraplegia was coined by Anita Harding in 1983. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 482 Audioversity
What is Indo-Scythians? Explain Indo-Scythians, Define Indo-Scythians, Meaning of Indo-Scythians
 
02:11
~~~ Indo-Scythians ~~~ Title: What is Indo-Scythians? Explain Indo-Scythians, Define Indo-Scythians, Meaning of Indo-Scythians Created on: 2018-08-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Scythians ------ Description: Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. The first Saka king in South Asia was Maues/Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara, and Indus Valley. The Indo-Scythians extended their supremacy over north-western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms. The Indo-Scythians were apparently subjugated by the Kushan Empire, by either Kujula Kadphises or Kanishka. Yet the Saka continued to govern as satrapies, forming the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni. Indo-Scythian rule in the northwestern Indian subcontinent ceased when the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III was defeated by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II in 395 CE.The invasion of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, played a significant part in the history of the Indian subcontinent as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu in the 2nd century AD, which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, and the Indian subcontinent as well as far-off Rome in the west, and more nearby to the west in Parthia. Ancient Roman historians including Arrian and Claudius Ptolemy have mentioned that the ancient Sakas were nomadic people. However, Italo Ronca, in his detailed study of Ptolemy's chapter vi, states: "The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests and caves" as spurious. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Cooch Behar State?, Explain Cooch Behar State, Define Cooch Behar State
 
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~~~ Cooch Behar State ~~~ Title: What is Cooch Behar State?, Explain Cooch Behar State, Define Cooch Behar State Created on: 2018-09-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooch_Behar_State ------ Description: Cooch Behar, also known as Koch Bihar, was a princely state ruled by Rajbanshi clans during the British Raj. The state was placed under the Bengal States Agency, part of the Eastern States Agency of the Bengal Presidency. It is located south of the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, in present-day West Bengal. Cooch Behar State was formed when the Kamata Kingdom under the Koch dynasty split following the death of Nara Narayan in 1586. The eastern portion, Koch Hajo, was soon absorbed by Ahom. The western portion, Koch Bihar, formed a separate unit that came under direct challenge by the Mughal Empire. After weathering the Mughal threat, a new foe emerged in the form of an expansionist Bhutanese kingdom. After a series of wars with the Bhutanese and Tibetans, the Northern threat was pushed back but not before a Bhutanese regent was installed in the royal court. The Koch Bihar court decided to invite British intervention. This came in the form of military assistance that -acting in concert with Koch Bihar forces- ended the Northern challenge once and for all. However the British East India company sought guarantees whereby the independence of Koch Bihar was limited by treaties. When the British colonial rule was finally terminated in India, the Koch Bihar state immediately acceded to and merged with India in 1949 and became a part of West Bengal. The district, Cooch Behar District, is named after this erstwhile kingdom. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Non-governmental organization?, Explain Non-governmental organization
 
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#Non-governmentalorganization #audioversity ~~~ Non-governmental organization ~~~ Title: What is Non-governmental organization?, Explain Non-governmental organization Created on: 2018-12-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization ------ Description: Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to affect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is normally used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries. The explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level, but then goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development, particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation.The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have approximately 440,000 officially registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017.The term 'NGO' is not always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO , and vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use. The most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national, or international.The term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e., non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. Later the term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not simply an opposition political party. One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Musicology? Explain Musicology, Define Musicology, Meaning of Musicology
 
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#Musicology #audioversity ~~~ Musicology ~~~ Title: What is Musicology? Explain Musicology, Define Musicology, Meaning of Musicology Created on: 2018-11-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musicology ------ Description: Musicology is the scholarly analysis and research-based study of music. Musicology is part of the humanities. A scholar who participates in musical research is a musicologist.Traditionally, historical musicology has been the most prominent sub-discipline of musicology. In the 2010s, historical musicology is one of several large musicology sub-disciplines. Historical musicology, ethnomusicology, and systematic musicology are approximately equal in size. Ethnomusicology is the study of music in its cultural context. Systematic musicology includes music acoustics, the science and technology of acoustical musical instruments, and the musical implications of physiology, psychology, sociology, philosophy and computing. Cognitive musicology is the set of phenomena surrounding the computational modeling of music. In some countries, music education is a prominent sub-field of musicology, while in others it is regarded as a distinct academic field, or one more closely affiliated with teacher education, educational research, and related fields. Like music education, music therapy is a specialized form of applied musicology which is sometimes considered more closely affiliated with health fields, and other times regarded as part of musicology proper. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 252 Audioversity
What is Applied economics?, Explain Applied economics, Define Applied economics
 
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~~~ Applied economics ~~~ Title: What is Applied economics?, Explain Applied economics, Define Applied economics Created on: 2018-07-16 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Applied_economics ------ Description: Applied economics is the application of economic theory and econometrics in specific settings. As one of the two sets of fields of economics , it is typically characterized by the application of the core, i.e. economic theory and econometrics, to address practical issues in a range of fields including demographic economics, labour economics, business economics, industrial organization, agricultural economics, development economics, education economics, health economics, monetary economics, public economics, and economic history. The process often involves a reduction in the level of abstraction of this core theory. There are a variety of approaches including not only empirical estimation using econometrics, input-output analysis or simulations but also case studies, historical analogy and so-called common sense or the "vernacular". This range of approaches is indicative of what Roger Backhouse and Jeff Biddle argue is the ambiguous nature of the concept of applied economics. It is a concept with multiple meanings. Among broad methodological distinctions, one source places it in neither positive nor normative economics but the art of economics, glossed as "what most economists do". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1850 Audioversity
What is Hindi–Urdu controversy?, Explain Hindi–Urdu controversy, Define Hindi–Urdu controversy
 
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~~~ Hindi–Urdu controversy ~~~ Title: What is Hindi–Urdu controversy?, Explain Hindi–Urdu controversy, Define Hindi–Urdu controversy Created on: 2018-10-12 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hindi%E2%80%93Urdu_controversy ------ Description: The Hindi–Urdu controversy is an ongoing dispute—dating back to the 19th century—regarding the status of Hindi and Urdu as a single language, Hindustani , or as two dialects of a single language, and the establishment of a single standard language in certain areas of North India. Although this debate was officially settled by a government order in 1950, declaring Hindi as the official language, some resistance remains. The present notion among some Muslims about this dispute is that Hindus abandoned the Urdu language, whereas some Hindus claim that Urdu was artificially created during Muslim rule.Hindi is a literary register of the Hindustani language, derived from the Khariboli dialect of the Hindi languages. A Persianized variant of Hindustani began to take shape during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire in South Asia. Urdu, along with English, became the first official language of British India in 1850. Urdu was being written, spoken and translated to and from English in all courts, schools, official documents, and government institutes. Although the need to have a language for Hindus developed in the 1850s, the irrevocable momentum of the Hindi language movement occurred around 1880. Urdu is a name derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda. When the Turco-Persian Mughals who invaded the Indian subcontinent made camps, the colloquial Persian spoken by the soldiers, known as the "language of the camp", or "Zaban-i-Ordu", became gradually more and more Indianised, as they themselves settled and married into the local communities, until the dialect they spoke was readily intelligible to the native Hindu population. The last few decades of the nineteenth century witnessed the eruption of the Hindi–Urdu controversy in the United Provinces . The controversy comprised "Hindi" and "Urdu" protagonists each advocating the official use of Hindustani with the Devanagari script or with the Nastaʿlīq script, respectively. Hindi movements advocating the growth of and official status for Devanagari were established in Northern India. Babu Shiva Prasad and Madan Mohan Malaviya were notable early proponents of this movement. This, consequently, led to the development of Urdu movements defending Urdu's official status; Syed Ahmed Khan was one of its noted advocates. In 1900, the Government issued a decree granting symbolic equal status to both Hindi and Urdu, which was opposed by Muslims and received with jubilation by Hindus. Hindi and Urdu started to diverge linguistically, with Hindi drawing on Sanskrit as the primary source for formal and academic vocabulary, often with a conscious attempt to purge the language of Persian-derived equivalents. Deploring this Hindu-Muslim divide, Gandhi proposed re-merging the standards, using either Devanagari or Urdu script, under the traditional generic term Hindustani. Bolstered by the support of the Indian National Congress and various leaders involved in the Indian Independence Movement, Hindi, in the Devanagari script, along with English, replaced Urdu as the official language of India during the institution of the Indian constitution in 1950. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 572 Audioversity
What is Hannah Arendt? Explain Hannah Arendt, Define Hannah Arendt, Meaning of Hannah Arendt
 
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~~~ Hannah Arendt ~~~ Title: What is Hannah Arendt? Explain Hannah Arendt, Define Hannah Arendt, Meaning of Hannah Arendt Created on: 2018-09-21 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hannah_Arendt ------ Description: Johanna "Hannah" Arendt was a German-born American philosopher and political theorist. Her many books and articles on topics ranging from totalitarianism to epistemology had a lasting influence on political theory. Arendt is widely considered one of the most important political philosophers of the twentieth century. Arendt was born in Hanover, but largely raised in Königsberg in a secular merchant Jewish culture to parents whose politics were social democracy. Her father died when she was seven, so she was raised by her mother and grandfather. After completing her secondary education, she studied at the University of Marburg under Martin Heidegger, with whom she had a brief affair, but who had a lasting influence on her thinking. She obtained her doctorate in philosophy in 1929 at the University of Heidelberg with Karl Jaspers. That year she married Günther Stern, but soon began to encounter increasing antisemitism in 1930s Germany. Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933, and while researching antisemitic propaganda for the Zionist Federation of Germany in Berlin that year, she was denounced and briefly imprisoned by the Gestapo. On release, she fled Germany, living in Czechoslovakia and Switzerland before settling in Paris. There she worked for Youth Aliyah, assisting young Jews to emigrate to Palestine. Divorcing Stern in 1937, she married Heinrich Blücher in 1940, but when Germany invaded France in 1940 she was detained by the French as an alien, despite having been stripped of her German citizenship in 1937. She escaped and made her way to the United States in 1941 via Portugal. She settled in New York, which remained her principal residence for the rest of her life. She became a writer and editor and worked for the Jewish Cultural Reconstruction, becoming an American citizen in 1950. With the appearance of The Origins of Totalitarianism in 1951, her reputation as a thinker and writer was established and a series of seminal works followed. These included The Human Condition in 1958, and both Eichmann in Jerusalem and On Revolution in 1963. She taught at many American universities, while declining tenure-track appointments. She died suddenly from a heart attack in 1975, at the age of 69, leaving her last work, The Life of the Mind, unfinished. Her works cover a broad range of topics, but she is best known for those dealing with the nature of power and evil, as well as politics, direct democracy, authority, and totalitarianism. In the popular mind she is best remembered for the controversy surrounding the trial of Adolf Eichmann, her attempt to explain how ordinary people become actors in totalitarian systems, which was considered an apologia, and for the phrase "the banality of evil". She is commemorated by institutions and journals devoted to her thinking, the Hannah Arendt Prize for political thinking, and on stamps, street names and schools, amongst other things. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 337 Audioversity
What is Westminster Confession of Faith?, Explain Westminster Confession of Faith
 
01:40
~~~ Westminster Confession of Faith ~~~ Title: What is Westminster Confession of Faith?, Explain Westminster Confession of Faith Created on: 2018-09-02 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Confession_of_Faith ------ Description: The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith. Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England, it became and remains the "subordinate standard" of doctrine in the Church of Scotland and has been influential within Presbyterian churches worldwide. In 1643, the English Parliament called upon "learned, godly and judicious Divines" to meet at Westminster Abbey in order to provide advice on issues of worship, doctrine, government and discipline of the Church of England. Their meetings, over a period of five years, produced the confession of faith, as well as a Larger Catechism and a Shorter Catechism. For more than three hundred years, various churches around the world have adopted the confession and the catechisms as their standards of doctrine, subordinate to the Bible. The Westminster Confession of Faith was modified and adopted by Congregationalists in England in the form of the Savoy Declaration . Likewise, the Baptists of England modified the Savoy Declaration to produce the Second London Baptist Confession . English Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Baptists would together come to be known as Nonconformists, because they did not conform to the Act of Uniformity establishing the Church of England as the only legally approved church, though they were in many ways united by their common confessions, built on the Westminster Confession. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 205 Audioversity
What is Polygon mesh? Explain Polygon mesh, Define Polygon mesh, Meaning of Polygon mesh
 
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~~~ Polygon mesh ~~~ Title: What is Polygon mesh? Explain Polygon mesh, Define Polygon mesh, Meaning of Polygon mesh Created on: 2018-08-26 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon_mesh ------ Description: A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. The faces usually consist of triangles , quadrilaterals, or other simple convex polygons, since this simplifies rendering, but may also be composed of more general concave polygons, or polygons with holes. The study of polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and geometric modeling. Different representations of polygon meshes are used for different applications and goals. The variety of operations performed on meshes may include Boolean logic, smoothing, simplification, and many others. Volumetric meshes are distinct from polygon meshes in that they explicitly represent both the surface and volume of a structure, while polygon meshes only explicitly represent the surface . As polygonal meshes are extensively used in computer graphics, algorithms also exist for ray tracing, collision detection, and rigid-body dynamics of polygon meshes. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 564 Audioversity
What is Gheranda Samhita?, Explain Gheranda Samhita, Define Gheranda Samhita
 
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~~~ Gheranda Samhita ~~~ Title: What is Gheranda Samhita?, Explain Gheranda Samhita, Define Gheranda Samhita Created on: 2018-09-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gheranda_Samhita ------ Description: Gheranda Samhita is a Sanskrit text of Yoga in Hinduism. It is one of the three classic texts of hatha yoga , and one of the most encyclopedic treatise in yoga. Fourteen manuscripts of the text are known, which were discovered in a region stretching from Bengal to Rajasthan. The first critical edition was published in 1933 by Adyar Library, and the second critical edition was published in 1978 by Digambarji and Ghote. Some of the Sanskrit manuscripts contain ungrammatical and incoherent verses, and some cite older Sanskrit texts.It is likely a late 17th-century text, probably from northeast India, structured as a teaching manual based on a dialogue between Gheranda and Chanda. The text is organized into seven chapters and contains 351 shlokas .The Gheranda Samhita calls itself a book on ghatastha yoga, which literally means "vessel yoga", wherein the body and mind are depicted as vessels that carry and serve the soul . It is generally considered a Hatha yoga text. The text teaches a seven limbed yoga, in contrast to eight limbed yoga in Patanjali's Yogasutras, six limbed yoga taught in Goraksha Samhita, and four limbed yoga discussed in Hatha Yoga Pradipika. It declares its goal to be the perfection of an individual's body, mind and soul through a seven step lifelong continuous self-development. The means of this goal include self purification, thirty two asanas it details for building body strength, twenty five mudras to perfect body steadiness, five means to pratyahara, lessons on proper nutrition and lifestyle, ten types of breathing exercises, three stages of meditation and six types of samadhi.The text reverentially invokes Hindu god Shiva as well as Vishnu, with verses such as 5.77 and 7.4 suggesting that the writer was also inspired by Advaita Vedanta ideas such as "I am Brahman alone, and nothing else; my form is truth, consciousness and bliss ; I am eternally free".Gheranda Samhita is a step by step detailed manual of yoga taught by sage Gheranda to student Chanda. Unlike other hatha yoga texts, the Gheranda Samhita speaks of a sevenfold yoga: Shatkarma for body cleansing Asana for body strengthening Mudra for body steadying Pratyahara for mind calming Pranayama for inner lightness Dhyana for inner perception Samādhi for self liberation and blissThe text itself follows this division in seven chapters, and has a focus upon the ṣaṭkarmas , thus this text is sometimes said to describe ghatastha yoga. For instance, the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali describes an eightfold path . The closing stanzas on samadhi teach different methods than those described by Patanjali. The earliest translation of the text into English was by Srisa Chandra Vasu. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 158 Audioversity
What is Tirthankara? Explain Tirthankara, Define Tirthankara, Meaning of Tirthankara
 
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~~~ Tirthankara ~~~ Title: What is Tirthankara? Explain Tirthankara, Define Tirthankara, Meaning of Tirthankara Created on: 2018-09-01 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tirthankara ------ Description: In Jainism, a tirthankara is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma . The word tirthankara signifies the founder of a tirtha, which is a fordable passage across the sea of interminable births and deaths, the saṃsāra. According to Jains, a tirthankara is a rare individual who has conquered the saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth, on his own and made a path for others to follow. After understanding the true nature of the Self or soul, the Tīrthaṅkara attains Kevala Jnana , and the first Tirthankara refounds Jainism. Tirthankara provides a bridge for others to follow the new teacher from saṃsāra to moksha .In Jain cosmology, the wheel of time is divided in two halves, Utsarpiṇī or ascending time cycle and avasarpiṇī, the descending time cycle . In each half of the cosmic time cycle, exactly twenty-four tirthankaras grace this part of the universe. There have been an infinite number of tirthankaras in the past time periods. The first tirthankara in this present time cycle was Rishabhanatha, who is credited for formulating and organising humans to live in a society harmoniously. The 24th and last tirthankara of present half-cycle was Mahavira . History records the existence of Mahavira and his predecessor, Parshvanath, the twenty-third tirthankara.A tirthankara organises the sangha, a fourfold order of male and female monastics, srāvakas and śrāvikās .The tirthankara's teachings form the basis for the Jain canons. The inner knowledge of tirthankara is believed to be perfect and identical in every respect and their teachings do not contradict one another. However, the degree of elaboration varies according to the spiritual advancement and purity of the society during their period of leadership. The higher the spiritual advancement and purity of mind of the society, the lower the elaboration required. While tirthankaras are documented and revered by Jains, their grace is said to be available to all living beings, regardless of religious orientation.Tīrthaṅkaras are arihants who after attaining kevalajñāna preach the true dharma. An Arihant is also called Jina , that is one who has conquered inner enemies such as anger, attachment, pride and greed. They dwell exclusively within the realm of their Soul, and are entirely free of kashayas, inner passions, and personal desires. As a result of this, unlimited siddhis, or spiritual powers, are readily available to them – which they use exclusively for the spiritual elevation of living beings. Through darśana, divine vision, and deshna, divine speech, they help others in attaining kevalajñana, and moksha to anyone seeking it sincerely. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 277 Audioversity
What is Suresh? Explain Suresh, Define Suresh, Meaning of Suresh
 
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#Suresh #audioversity ~~~ Suresh ~~~ Title: What is Suresh? Explain Suresh, Define Suresh, Meaning of Suresh Created on: 2018-11-16 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suresh ------ Description: Suresh is an Indian masculine given name originating in the Sanskrit word sureśa . Its meaning is "Ruler of Gods" and it has been used an epithet for the Hindu gods Indra, Bhrama, Vishnu and Shiva.People named Suresh include: Suresh , Indian Tamil-Telugu film actor Suresh Balaje, Indian film producer Suresh Bharadwaj, Indian politician Suresh , Tamil film director J. Suresh, Tamil film director Suresh Gopi , Indian Malayalam film actor Suresh Heblikar, Indian Kannada film actor Suresh Joachim, Tamil Canadian film actor, producer and multiple Guinness World Record holder Suresh Joshi, Indian poet, writer and literary critic Suresh Krishna, Indian Malayali film actor Suresh Krissna, Indian Tamil film director Suresh Kumar, American economist and businessman, Director-General of the U.S. Foreign Commercial Service Suresh Oberoi, Indian Hindi movie actor Suresh Raina, Indian cricketer Suresh Premachandran, Sri Lankan Tamil politician and leader of the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front Suresh Venkatasubramanian, Indian-American computer scientist Daggubati Suresh Babu, Indian Telugu film producer Subra Suresh, Engineer and scientist, president of Nanyang Technological University ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 539 Audioversity
What is Instrumental Marxism?, Explain Instrumental Marxism, Define Instrumental Marxism
 
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#InstrumentalMarxism #audioversity ~~~ Instrumental Marxism ~~~ Title: What is Instrumental Marxism?, Explain Instrumental Marxism, Define Instrumental Marxism Created on: 2018-11-23 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_Marxism ------ Description: Instrumental Marxism, or elite model, is a theory which reasons that policy makers in government and positions of power tend to "share a common business or class background, and that their decisions will reflect their business or class interests". It tends to view the state and law as ultimately an instrument or tool for individuals of the economically dominant class to use for their own purposes, particularly maintaining economic exploitation while winning ideological assent to their hegemony. This view is contrasted with structural Marxism, which views the class background of policymakers, etc. as purely incidental to the "bourgeois" nature of the modern state, which is seen instead as a result of the position of the state and law in the objective structure of capitalist society, and their objective function of reproducing the relations of production and private property, regardless of the class background of the individuals involved in the administration thereof. For example, whereas for instrumentalist Marxists the formal equality of contract law in capitalist societies is a kind of ideological shell or mystification used by the elite to conceal the real kernel of exploitation, for structural Marxists that formal legal equality is itself the real normative basis for properly capitalist exploitation, whether or not elites understand it as such: it allows labor-power to be traded at its real exchange-value , thus making regularity and rational allocation in labor markets possible.In the framework of the structure and agency debate in sociology, instrumental Marxism is an agent-centered view, emphasizing the decisions of policymakers, where the relevant agents are either individual elites, a section of the ruling class, or the class as a whole; whereas structural Marxism, as its name suggests, is a structural view, in which individuals are no more than the bearers of certain objective structural relations. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 105 Audioversity
What is Edward the Confessor?, Explain Edward the Confessor, Define Edward the Confessor
 
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~~~ Edward the Confessor ~~~ Title: What is Edward the Confessor?, Explain Edward the Confessor, Define Edward the Confessor Created on: 2018-10-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_the_Confessor ------ Description: Edward the Confessor , also known as Saint Edward the Confessor, was among the last Anglo-Saxon kings of England. Usually considered the last king of the House of Wessex, he ruled from 1042 to 1066. The son of Æthelred the Unready and Emma of Normandy, Edward succeeded Cnut the Great's son – and his own half brother – Harthacnut, restoring the rule of the House of Wessex after the period of Danish rule since Cnut conquered England in 1016. When Edward died in 1066, he was succeeded by Harold Godwinson, who was defeated and killed in the same year by the Normans under William the Conqueror at the Battle of Hastings. Edgar the Ætheling, who was of the House of Wessex, was proclaimed king after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, but never ruled and was deposed after about eight weeks. Historians disagree about Edward's fairly long reign. His nickname reflects the traditional image of him as unworldly and pious. Confessor reflects his reputation as a saint who did not suffer martyrdom, as opposed to King Edward the Martyr. Some portray Edward the Confessor's reign as leading to the disintegration of royal power in England and the advance in power of the House of Godwin, due to the infighting that began after his heirless death. Biographers Frank Barlow and Peter Rex, on the other hand, portray Edward as a successful king, one who was energetic, resourceful and sometimes ruthless; they argue that the Norman conquest shortly after his death tarnished his image. However, Richard Mortimer argues that the return of the Godwins from exile in 1052 "meant the effective end of his exercise of power", citing Edward's reduced activity as implying "a withdrawal from affairs".About a century later, in 1161, Pope Alexander III canonised the late king. Saint Edward was one of England's national saints until King Edward III adopted Saint George as the national patron saint in about 1350. Saint Edward's feast day is 13 October, celebrated by both the Church of England and the Catholic Church in England and Wales. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 108 Audioversity
What is Chlorophyll? Explain Chlorophyll, Define Chlorophyll, Meaning of Chlorophyll
 
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~~~ Chlorophyll ~~~ Title: What is Chlorophyll? Explain Chlorophyll, Define Chlorophyll, Meaning of Chlorophyll Created on: 2018-09-18 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorophyll ------ Description: Chlorophyll is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon . Chlorophyll is essential in photosynthesis, allowing plants to absorb energy from light. Chlorophylls absorb light most strongly in the blue portion of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as the red portion. Conversely, it is a poor absorber of green and near-green portions of the spectrum, which it reflects, producing the green color of chlorophyll-containing tissues. Two types of chlorophyll exist in the photosystems of green plants: chlorophyll a and b. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 692 Audioversity
What is Zilog Z80? Explain Zilog Z80, Define Zilog Z80, Meaning of Zilog Z80
 
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~~~ Zilog Z80 ~~~ Title: What is Zilog Z80? Explain Zilog Z80, Define Zilog Z80, Meaning of Zilog Z80 Created on: 2018-09-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zilog_Z80 ------ Description: The Z80 CPU is an 8-bit based microprocessor. It was introduced by Zilog in 1976 as the startup company's first product. The Z80 was conceived by Federico Faggin in late 1974 and developed by him and his then-11 employees at Zilog from early 1975 until March 1976, when the first fully working samples were delivered. With the revenue from the Z80, the company built its own chip factories and grew to over a thousand employees over the following two years.The Zilog Z80 was a software-compatible extension and enhancement of the Intel 8080 and, like it, was mainly aimed at embedded systems. According to the designers, the primary targets for the Z80 CPU were products like intelligent terminals, high end printers and advanced cash registers as well as telecom equipment, industrial robots and other kinds of automation equipment. The Z80 was officially introduced on the market in July 1976 and came to be widely used also in general desktop computers using CP/M and other operating systems as well as in the home computers of the 1980s. It was also common in military applications, musical equipment, such as synthesizers, and in the computerized coin operated video games of the late 1970s and early 1980, the arcade machines or video game arcade cabinets. The Z80 was one of the most commonly used CPUs in the home computer market from the late 1970s to the mid-1980s. Zilog licensed the Z80 to the US-based Synertek and Mostek, which had helped them with initial production, as well as to a European second source manufacturer, SGS. The design was copied also by several Japanese, East European and Soviet manufacturers. This won the Z80 acceptance in the world market since large companies like NEC, Toshiba, Sharp, and Hitachi started to manufacture the device . In recent decades Zilog has refocused on the ever-growing market for embedded systems and the most recent Z80-compatible microcontroller family, the fully pipelined 24-bit eZ80 with a linear 16 MB address range, has been successfully introduced alongside the simpler Z180 and Z80 products. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 275 Audioversity
What is Kellogg–Briand Pact?, Explain Kellogg–Briand Pact, Define Kellogg–Briand Pact
 
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~~~ Kellogg–Briand Pact ~~~ Title: What is Kellogg–Briand Pact?, Explain Kellogg–Briand Pact, Define Kellogg–Briand Pact Created on: 2018-08-26 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg%E2%80%93Briand_Pact ------ Description: The Kellogg–Briand Pact is a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them". Parties failing to abide by this promise "should be denied of the benefits furnished by treaty". It was signed by Germany, France, and the United States on 27 August 1928, and by most other states soon after. Sponsored by France and the U.S., the Pact renounces the use of war and calls for the peaceful settlement of disputes. Eleven years later after the Paris signing, World War II had begun. Similar provisions were incorporated into the Charter of the United Nations and other treaties and it became a stepping-stone to a more activist American policy. It is named after its authors, United States Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg and French foreign minister Aristide Briand. The pact was concluded outside the League of Nations, and remains in effect.As a practical matter, the Kellogg–Briand Pact did not live up to all of its aims, but has arguably had some success. It did not end war or stop the rise of militarism, and was unable to keep the international peace in succeeding years. The Pact has been ridiculed for its moralism and legalism and lack of influence on foreign policy. Moreover, it erased the legal distinction between war and peace because the signatories began to wage wars without declaring them.The pact's central provisions renouncing the use of war, and promoting peaceful settlement of disputes and the use of collective force to prevent aggression, were incorporated into the United Nations Charter and other treaties. Although civil wars continued, wars between established states have been rare since 1945, with a few exceptions in the Middle East. One legal consequence is that it is unlawful to annex territory by force, although other forms of annexation have not been prevented. More broadly, some authors claim there is now a strong presumption against the legality of using, or threatening, military force against another country. The pact also served as the legal basis for the concept of a crime against peace, for which the Nuremberg Tribunal and Tokyo Tribunal tried and executed the top leaders responsible for starting World War II.Many historians and political scientists see the pact as mostly irrelevant and ineffective. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 697 Audioversity
What is The Time Traveler's Wife?, Explain The Time Traveler's Wife, Define The Time Traveler's Wife
 
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~~~ The Time Traveler's Wife ~~~ Title: What is The Time Traveler's Wife?, Explain The Time Traveler's Wife, Define The Time Traveler's Wife Created on: 2018-10-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Time_Traveler%27s_Wife ------ Description: The Time Traveler's Wife is the debut novel of American author Audrey Niffenegger, published in 2003. It is a love story about a man with a genetic disorder that causes him to time travel unpredictably, and about his wife, an artist, who has to cope with his frequent absences and dangerous experiences. Niffenegger, frustrated in love when she began the work, wrote the story as a metaphor for her failed relationships. The tale's central relationship came to her suddenly and subsequently supplied the novel's title. The novel, which has been classified as both science fiction and romance, examines issues of love, loss, and free will. In particular, it uses time travel to explore miscommunication and distance in relationships, while also investigating deeper existential questions. As a first-time novelist, Niffenegger had trouble finding a literary agent. She eventually sent the novel to MacAdam/Cage unsolicited and, after an auction took place for the rights, Niffenegger selected them as her publishers. The book became a bestseller after an endorsement from author and family friend Scott Turow on The Today Show, and as of March 2009 had sold nearly 2.5 million copies in the United States and the United Kingdom. Many reviewers were impressed with Niffenegger's unique perspectives on time travel. Some praised her characterization of the couple, applauding their emotional depth; others criticized her writing style as melodramatic and the plot as emotionally trite. The novel won the Exclusive Books Boeke Prize and a British Book Award. A film version was released in August 2009. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 228 Audioversity
What is Booker T. Washington?, Explain Booker T. Washington, Define Booker T. Washington
 
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~~~ Booker T. Washington ~~~ Title: What is Booker T. Washington?, Explain Booker T. Washington, Define Booker T. Washington Created on: 2018-10-22 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Booker_T._Washington ------ Description: Booker Taliaferro Washington was an American educator, author, orator, and advisor to presidents of the United States. Between 1890 and 1915, Washington was the dominant leader in the African-American community. Washington was from the last generation of black American leaders born into slavery and became the leading voice of the former slaves and their descendants. They were newly oppressed in the South by disenfranchisement and the Jim Crow discriminatory laws enacted in the post-Reconstruction Southern states in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Washington was a key proponent of African-American businesses and one of the founders of the National Negro Business League. His base was the Tuskegee Institute, a historically black college in Alabama. As lynchings in the South reached a peak in 1895, Washington gave a speech, known as the "Atlanta compromise", which brought him national fame. He called for black progress through education and entrepreneurship, rather than trying to challenge directly the Jim Crow segregation and the disenfranchisement of black voters in the South. Washington mobilized a nationwide coalition of middle-class blacks, church leaders, and white philanthropists and politicians, with a long-term goal of building the community's economic strength and pride by a focus on self-help and schooling. But, secretly, he also supported court challenges to segregation and restrictions on voter registration, passing on funds to the NAACP for this purpose. Black militants in the North, led by W. E. B. Du Bois, at first supported the Atlanta compromise but after 1909, they set up the NAACP to work for political change. They tried with limited success to challenge Washington's political machine for leadership in the black community but also built wider networks among white allies in the North. Decades after Washington's death in 1915, the civil rights movement of the 1950s took a more active and militant approach, which was also based on new grassroots organizations based in the South, such as CORE, SNCC and SCLC. Booker T. Washington mastered the nuances of the political arena in the late 19th century, which enabled him to manipulate the media, raise money, develop strategy, network, push, reward friends, and distribute funds, while punishing those who opposed his plans for uplifting blacks. His long-term goal was to end the disenfranchisement of the vast majority of African Americans, who then still lived in the South. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 249 Audioversity
What is Mamprusi people? Explain Mamprusi people, Define Mamprusi people, Meaning of Mamprusi people
 
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#Mamprusipeople #audioversity ~~~ Mamprusi people ~~~ Title: What is Mamprusi people? Explain Mamprusi people, Define Mamprusi people, Meaning of Mamprusi people Created on: 2019-01-14 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mamprusi_people ------ Description: The Mamprusi, or Mamprussi, are an ethnic group of northern Ghana and Togo. There are some 220,000 Mamprusi living in Ghana and approximately 11,000 in Togo. They speak Mampruli, a Gur language. In Ghana, the Mamprusis live mainly in Nalerigu and Gambaga in the North East region but also inhabit parts of the Upper East Region. The Mamprusi Kingdom was founded around the 16th century by the Great Naa Gbanwah/Gbewah at Pusiga, a village 14 kilometres from Bawku. The Kingdom spans most of the North East and the Upper East Regions of Ghana, and into Burkina Faso. As a consequence, the King of Mossi to this day is enskinned by the Nayiri – the king of Mamprugu. Thus, establishing this kingdom as the pre-eminent of its kind, and the only kingdom in present-day Ghana whose relevance and authority cuts across national boundaries on the weight of its humble supremacy. The name of the kingdom is Mamprugu, the ethnicity is Mamprusi, and the language is Mampruli. Mamprusis revere the hallowed grounds of Bawku as their ancestral home, their origin. That is why Naa Gbewah's tomb in Pusiga, is a shrine of repute to this day. It is believed that his disappearance was subteraneal, one of the marvels of Northern Ghana, and many ethnicities hold to agree with this uncommon historical account. It was after his death that his children moved farther afield and founded other kingdoms, namely: Dagbon and Namum. Note that the name Naa Gbanwah and Gbewah can be used interchangeably, the difference being that Mamprusis refer to him as gbanwah and dagombas refer to him as gbewah. It is just a difference in pronunciations. The people of Mamprusi were led by a great warrior Tohazie "the Red Hunter". During the migration Tohazie died and his grandson Na-Gbewa succeeded him. Na-Gbewa died and he was succeeded by his eldest son Wiliri. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 31 Audioversity
What is Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)?, Explain Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)
 
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~~~ Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) ~~~ Title: What is Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604)?, Explain Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) Created on: 2018-09-07 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anglo-Spanish_War_(1585%E2%80%931604) ------ Description: The Anglo-Spanish War was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared. The war was punctuated by widely separated battles, and began with England's military expedition in 1585 to the Netherlands under the command of the Earl of Leicester in support of the resistance of the States General to Spanish Habsburg rule. The English enjoyed some victories at Cádiz in 1587, and saw the Spanish Armada retreat in 1588, but then suffered severe defeats of the English Armada in 1589 and the Drake–Hawkins and Essex–Raleigh expeditions in 1595 and 1597 respectively. Two further Spanish armadas were sent in 1596 and 1597 but were frustrated in their objectives mainly because of adverse weather and poor planning. The war became deadlocked around the turn of the 17th century during campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland. It was brought to an end with the Treaty of London, negotiated in 1604 between representatives of the new King of Spain, Philip III, and the new King of England, James I. England and Spain agreed to cease their military interventions in the Spanish Netherlands and Ireland, respectively, and the English ended high seas privateering. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 161 Audioversity
What is Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes?, Explain Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
 
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~~~ Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes ~~~ Title: What is Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes?, Explain Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes Created on: 2018-08-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scheduled_Castes_and_Scheduled_Tribes ------ Description: The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India. The terms are recognised in the Constitution of India and the groups are designated in one or other of the categories. For much of the period of British rule in the Indian subcontinent, they were known as the Depressed Classes. The people in scheduled castes is essentially lowest part of hindu society. In modern literature, the Scheduled Castes/Tribes are sometimes referred to as untouchables; in Tamil Nadu they are referred as Adi Dravida; and in other states mostly referred as scheduled castes.The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes comprise about 16.6% and 14%, respectively, of India's population . The Constitution Order, 1950 lists 1,108 castes across 29 states in its First Schedule, and the Constitution Order, 1950 lists 744 tribes across 22 states in its First Schedule.Since the independence of India, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes were given Reservation status, guaranteeing political representation. The Constitution lays down the general principles of positive discrimination for SCs and STs. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 431 Audioversity
What is Koebner phenomenon?, Explain Koebner phenomenon, Define Koebner phenomenon
 
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#Koebnerphenomenon #audioversity ~~~ Koebner phenomenon ~~~ Title: What is Koebner phenomenon?, Explain Koebner phenomenon, Define Koebner phenomenon Created on: 2018-12-27 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Koebner_phenomenon ------ Description: The Koebner phenomenon or Köbner phenomenon , also called the Koebner response or the isomorphic response, attributed to Heinrich Köbner, is the appearance of skin lesions on lines of trauma. The Koebner phenomenon may result from either a linear exposure or irritation. Conditions demonstrating linear lesions after a linear exposure to a causative agent include: molluscum contagiosum, warts and toxicodendron dermatitis . Warts and molluscum contagiosum lesions can be spread in linear patterns by self-scratching . Toxicodendron dermatitis lesions are often linear from brushing up against the plant. Causes of the Koebner phenomenon that are secondary to scratching rather than an infective or chemical cause include vitiligo, psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen nitidus, pityriasis rubra pilaris, and keratosis follicularis . ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 344 Audioversity
What is Plant disease epidemiology?, Explain Plant disease epidemiology
 
02:39
~~~ Plant disease epidemiology ~~~ Title: What is Plant disease epidemiology?, Explain Plant disease epidemiology Created on: 2018-10-13 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_disease_epidemiology ------ Description: Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations. Much like diseases of humans and other animals, plant diseases occur due to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants. Plant disease epidemiologists strive for an understanding of the cause and effects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations where crop losses may occur. Typically successful intervention will lead to a low enough level of disease to be acceptable, depending upon the value of the crop. Plant disease epidemiology is often looked at from a multi-disciplinary approach, requiring biological, statistical, agronomic and ecological perspectives. Biology is necessary for understanding the pathogen and its life cycle. It is also necessary for understanding the physiology of the crop and how the pathogen is adversely affecting it. Agronomic practices often influence disease incidence for better or for worse. Ecological influences are numerous. Native species of plants may serve as reservoirs for pathogens that cause disease in crops. Statistical models are often applied in order to summarize and describe the complexity of plant disease epidemiology, so that disease processes can be more readily understood. For example, comparisons between patterns of disease progress for different diseases, cultivars, management strategies, or environmental settings can help in determining how plant diseases may best be managed. Policy can be influential in the occurrence of diseases, through actions such as restrictions on imports from sources where a disease occurs. In 1963 J. E. van der Plank published "Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control", a seminal work that created a theoretical framework for the study of the epidemiology of plant diseases. This book provides a theoretical framework based on experiments in many different host pathogen systems and moved the study of plant disease epidemiology forward rapidly, especially for fungal foliar pathogens. Using this framework we can now model and determine thresholds for epidemics that take place in a homogeneous environment such as a mono-cultural crop field. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 373 Audioversity
What is Paul Reynaud? Explain Paul Reynaud, Define Paul Reynaud, Meaning of Paul Reynaud
 
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~~~ Paul Reynaud ~~~ Title: What is Paul Reynaud? Explain Paul Reynaud, Define Paul Reynaud, Meaning of Paul Reynaud Created on: 2018-10-03 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paul_Reynaud ------ Description: Paul Reynaud was a French politician and lawyer prominent in the interwar period, noted for his stances on economic liberalism and militant opposition to Germany. After the outbreak of World War II Reynaud became the penultimate Prime Minister of the Third Republic in March 1940. He was also vice-president of the Democratic Republican Alliance center-right party. Reynaud was Prime Minister during the German defeat of France in May and June 1940; he persistently refused to support an armistice with Germany and resigned on 16 June. After unsuccessfully attempting to flee France, he was arrested by Philippe Petain's administration. Surrendered to German custody in 1942, he was imprisoned in Germany and later Austria until liberation in 1945. Elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1946, he became a prominent figure again in French political life, serving in several cabinet positions. He favoured a United States of Europe, and participated in drafting the constitution for the Fifth Republic, but resigned from government in 1962 after disagreement with President de Gaulle over changes to the electoral system. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 78 Audioversity
What is Black September? Explain Black September, Define Black September, Meaning of Black September
 
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~~~ Black September ~~~ Title: What is Black September? Explain Black September, Define Black September, Meaning of Black September Created on: 2018-09-15 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_September ------ Description: Black September was the conflict fought in Jordan between the Jordanian Armed Forces , under the leadership of King Hussein, and the Palestine Liberation Organisation , under the leadership of Yasser Arafat, primarily between 16 and 27 September 1970, with certain actions continuing until 17 July 1971. After Jordan lost control of the West Bank to Israel in 1967, Palestinian fighters known as fedayeen moved their bases to Jordan and stepped up their attacks on Israel and Israeli-occupied territories. One Israeli retaliation on a PLO camp based in Karameh, a Jordanian town along the border with the West Bank, developed into a full-scale battle. The perceived joint Jordanian-Palestinian victory in the 1968 Battle of Karameh led to an upsurge in Arab support for the Palestinian fighters in Jordan. The PLO's strength in Jordan grew, and by the beginning of 1970, groups within the PLO had started to openly call for the overthrow of the Hashemite monarchy. Acting as a state within a state, the fedayeen disregarded local laws and regulations, and even attempted to assassinate King Hussein twice—leading to violent confrontations between them and the Jordanian army in June 1970. Hussein wanted to oust the fedayeen from the country, but hesitated to strike because he did not want his enemies to use it against him by equating Palestinian fighters with civilians. PLO actions in Jordan culminated in the Dawson's Field hijackings incident of 6 September, in which the fedayeen hijacked three civilian aircraft and forced their landing in Zarqa, taking foreign nationals as hostages, and later blowing up the planes in front of international press. Hussein saw this as the last straw, and ordered the army to move.On 17 September, the Jordanian army surrounded cities with a PLO presence including Amman and Irbid, and began shelling the fedayeen, who had established themselves in Palestinian refugee camps. The next day, a Syrian force, with Palestine Liberation Army markings, intervened in support of the fedayeen. It advanced towards Irbid which the fedayeen had declared a "liberated" city. On 22 September, the Syrians withdrew from Irbid after the Jordanian army launched an air-ground offensive that inflicted heavy Syrian losses. Pressure mounted by Arab countries led Hussein to halt the fighting. On 13 October he signed an agreement with Arafat to regulate the fedayeen's presence. However, the Jordanian army attacked again in January 1971. The fedayeen were driven out of the cities, one by one, until 2,000 fedayeen surrendered after being surrounded in a forest near Ajloun on 17 July, marking the end of the conflict.Jordan allowed the fedayeen to leave for Lebanon via Syria, and the fedayeen later participated in the 1975 Lebanese Civil War. The Black September Organization was founded after the conflict to carry out reprisals against the Jordanian authorities. The organization's first attack was the assassination of Wasfi Al-Tal in 1971, the then Jordanian Prime Minister who had commanded parts of the operation that expelled the fedayeen. The organization then shifted to attacking Israeli targets, including the highly publicized 1972 Munich massacre of Israeli athletes. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Antihistamine? Explain Antihistamine, Define Antihistamine, Meaning of Antihistamine
 
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~~~ Antihistamine ~~~ Title: What is Antihistamine? Explain Antihistamine, Define Antihistamine, Meaning of Antihistamine Created on: 2018-08-27 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antihistamine ------ Description: Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Antihistamines can give relief when a person has nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives because of pollen, dust mites, or animal allergy. Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug with few side effects. As an alternative to taking an antihistamine, people who suffer from allergies can instead avoid the substance which irritates them. However, this is not always possible as some substances, such as pollen, are carried in the air, thus making allergic reactions caused by them generally unavoidable. Antihistamines are usually for short-term treatment. Chronic allergies increase the risk of health problems which antihistamines might not treat, including asthma, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection. Doctors recommend that people talk to them before any longer term use of antihistamines.Although people typically use the word “antihistamine” to describe drugs for treating allergies, doctors and scientists use the term to describe a class of drug that opposes the activity of histamine receptors in the body. In this sense of the word, antihistamines are subclassified according to the histamine receptor that they act upon. The two largest classes of antihistamines are H1-antihistamines and H2-antihistamines. Antihistamines that target the histamine H1-receptor are used to treat allergic reactions in the nose as well as for insomnia. They are sometimes also used to treat motion sickness or vertigo caused by problems with the inner ear. Antihistamines that target the histamine H2-receptor are used to treat gastric acid conditions . H1-antihistamines work by binding to histamine H1 receptors in mast cells, smooth muscle, and endothelium in the body as well as in the tuberomammillary nucleus in the brain; H2-antihistamines bind to histamine H2 receptors in the upper gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the stomach. Histamine receptors exhibit constitutive activity, so antihistamines can function as either a neutral receptor antagonist or an inverse agonist at histamine receptors. Only a few currently marketed H1-antihistamines are known to function as inverse agonists. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Metro Bacolod? Explain Metro Bacolod, Define Metro Bacolod, Meaning of Metro Bacolod
 
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#MetroBacolod #audioversity ~~~ Metro Bacolod ~~~ Title: What is Metro Bacolod? Explain Metro Bacolod, Define Metro Bacolod, Meaning of Metro Bacolod Created on: 2019-01-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Bacolod ------ Description: The Bacolod Metropolitan Area , simply known as Metro Bacolod, is the 8th-most populous and the 6th-most densely populated metropolitan area out of the 12 metropolitan areas in the Philippines. This metropolitan area as defined by the National Economic and Development Authority has an estimated population of 791,019 inhabitants as of the 2015 official census by the Philippine Statistics Authority.The metropolitan area is centered on Bacolod City, the provincial capital, and the component cities of Silay and Talisay, all three cities located in the province of Negros Occidental. As of 2005, Metro Bacolod has relatively high GDP shares, contributed ₱88,056,250 or about 7.3% of the country's gross domestic product . Metro Bacolod is among those identified by the National Framework for Physical Planning: 2001–2030 as one of the country’s industrial, financial and technological centers. It is ranked 4th among the six regions in terms of GDP contributions in 2005.However, under the initiative of the Bacolod City Government, the definition has been expanded to include the City of Bago and Municipality of Murcia, bring the total population to 1,043,286 based on the 2015 official census of the Philippine Statistics Authority. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 45 Audioversity
What is Peranakan? Explain Peranakan, Define Peranakan, Meaning of Peranakan
 
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~~~ Peranakan ~~~ Title: What is Peranakan? Explain Peranakan, Define Peranakan, Meaning of Peranakan Created on: 2018-09-06 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peranakan ------ Description: Peranakan Chinese, or Straits-born Chinese, are the descendants of Chinese immigrants who came to the Malay archipelago including British Malaya and Dutch East Indies and southern Thailand, primarily in Phuket and Ranong between the 15th and 17th centuries.Members of this community in Malaysia address themselves as Baba Nyonya. Nyonya is the term for the women and Baba for the men. It applies especially to the Han populations of the British Straits Settlements of Malaya and the Dutch-controlled island of Java and other locations, who have adopted Nusantara customs—partially or in full—to be somewhat assimilated into the local communities. Many were the elites of Singapore, more loyal to the British than to China. Most have lived for generations along the straits of Malacca. They were usually traders, the middleman of the British and the Chinese, or the Chinese and Malays, or vice versa because they were mostly English educated. Because of this, they almost always had the ability to speak two or more languages. While the term Peranakan is most commonly used to refer to those of Chinese descent also known as Straits Chinese , there are also other, comparatively smaller Peranakan communities, such as Indian Hindu Peranakans , Arab and Indian Muslim Peranakans and Eurasian Peranakans . The group has parallels to the Cambodian Hokkien, who are descendants of Hoklo Chinese, and the Pashu of Myanmar, a Burmese word for the Peranakan or Straits Chinese who have settled in Myanmar. They maintained their culture partially despite their native language gradually disappearing a few generations after settlement. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 264 Audioversity
What is Richard Rorty? Explain Richard Rorty, Define Richard Rorty, Meaning of Richard Rorty
 
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~~~ Richard Rorty ~~~ Title: What is Richard Rorty? Explain Richard Rorty, Define Richard Rorty, Meaning of Richard Rorty Created on: 2018-10-01 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Rorty ------ Description: Richard McKay Rorty was an American philosopher. Educated at the University of Chicago and Yale University, he had strong interests and training in both the history of philosophy and contemporary analytic philosophy, the latter of which came to comprise the main focus of his work at Princeton University in the 1960s. He subsequently came to reject the tradition of philosophy according to which knowledge involves correct representation of a world whose existence remains wholly independent of that representation. Rorty had a long and diverse academic career, including positions as Stuart Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University, Kenan Professor of Humanities at the University of Virginia, and Professor of Comparative Literature at Stanford University. Among his most influential books are Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature , Consequences of Pragmatism , and Contingency, Irony, and Solidarity . Rorty saw the idea of knowledge as a "mirror of nature" as pervasive throughout the history of western philosophy. Against this approach, Rorty advocated for a novel form of American pragmatism, sometimes called neopragmatism, in which scientific and philosophical methods form merely a set of contingent "vocabularies" which people abandon or adopt over time according to social conventions and usefulness. Abandoning representationalist accounts of knowledge and language, Rorty believed, would lead to a state of mind he referred to as "ironism," in which people become completely aware of the contingency of their placement in history and of their philosophical vocabulary. Rorty tied this brand of philosophy to the notion of "social hope"; he believed that without the representationalist accounts, and without metaphors between the mind and the world, human society would behave more peacefully. He also emphasized the reasons why the interpretation of culture as conversation , constitutes the crucial concept of a "postphilosophical" culture determined to abandon representationalist accounts of traditional epistemology, incorporating American pragmatist naturalism that considers the natural sciences as an advance towards liberalism. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 124 Audioversity
What is Doctor of Philosophy?, Explain Doctor of Philosophy, Define Doctor of Philosophy
 
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~~~ Doctor of Philosophy ~~~ Title: What is Doctor of Philosophy?, Explain Doctor of Philosophy, Define Doctor of Philosophy Created on: 2018-09-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Philosophy ------ Description: A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for this qualification are usually not only required to demonstrate subject-matter expertise and mastery by examination, they are also often asked to make a new scholarly contribution to a particular area of knowledge through their own original research. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Additionally, holders of this degree may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil" . However, they should never list both "Dr." and "Ph.D." with their name in reference to the same academic qualification, as this is considered redundant, possibly misleading, and in poor taste.The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate . A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions, or may be granted a master's degree en route to the doctoral degree. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as "Ph.D. ABD", meaning "All But Dissertation."A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts for music performers and the Doctor of Education for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for third-cycle degrees within the Bologna Process. These were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields other than theology, law, and medicine were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 231 Audioversity
What is Semitic languages?, Explain Semitic languages, Define Semitic languages
 
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~~~ Semitic languages ~~~ Title: What is Semitic languages?, Explain Semitic languages, Define Semitic languages Created on: 2018-08-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semitic_languages ------ Description: The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East. Semitic languages are spoken by more than 330 million people across much of Western Asia, North Africa and the Horn of Africa, as well as in often large expatriate communities in North America and Europe, with smaller communities in the Caucasus and Central Asia. The terminology was first used in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, who derived the name from Shem, one of the three sons of Noah in the Book of Genesis. The most widely spoken Semitic languages today are Arabic , Amharic , Tigrinya , Hebrew , Tigre , Aramaic and Maltese .Semitic languages occur in written form from a very early historical date, with East Semitic Akkadian and Eblaite texts appearing from the 30th century BCE and the 25th century BCE in Mesopotamia and the northern Levant respectively. The only earlier attested languages are Sumerian, Elamite , Egyptian and unclassified Lullubi from 30th century BCE. However, most scripts used to write Semitic languages are abjads – a type of alphabetic script that omits some or all of the vowels, which is feasible for these languages because the consonants in the Semitic languages are the primary carriers of meaning. Among them are the Ugaritic, Phoenician, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, and South Arabian alphabets. The Ge'ez script, used for writing the Semitic languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea, is technically an abugida – a modified abjad in which vowels are notated using diacritic marks added to the consonants at all times, in contrast with other Semitic languages which indicate diacritics based on need or for introductory purposes. Maltese is the only Semitic language written in the Latin script and the only Semitic language to be an official language of the European Union. The Semitic languages are notable for their nonconcatenative morphology. That is, word roots are not themselves syllables or words, but instead are isolated sets of consonants . Words are composed out of roots not so much by adding prefixes or suffixes, but rather by filling in the vowels between the root consonants . For example, in Arabic, the root meaning "write" has the form k-t-b. From this root, words are formed by filling in the vowels and sometimes adding additional consonants, e.g. كتاب kitāb "book", كتب kutub "books", كاتب kātib "writer", كتّاب kuttāb "writers", كتب kataba "he wrote", يكتب yaktubu "he writes", etc. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 220 Audioversity
What is Corinthian War? Explain Corinthian War, Define Corinthian War, Meaning of Corinthian War
 
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~~~ Corinthian War ~~~ Title: What is Corinthian War? Explain Corinthian War, Define Corinthian War, Meaning of Corinthian War Created on: 2018-08-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corinthian_War ------ Description: The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia. The immediate cause of the war was a local conflict in northwest Greece in which both Thebes and Sparta intervened. The deeper cause was hostility towards Sparta provoked by that city's "expansionism in Asia Minor, central and northern Greece and even the west".The war was fought on two fronts, on land near Corinth and Thebes and at sea in the Aegean. On land, the Spartans achieved several early successes in major battles, but were unable to capitalize on their advantage, and the fighting soon became stalemated. At sea, the Spartan fleet was decisively defeated by a Persian fleet early in the war, an event that effectively ended Sparta's attempts to become a naval power. Taking advantage of this fact, Athens launched several naval campaigns in the later years of the war, recapturing a number of islands that had been part of the original Delian League during the 5th century BC. Alarmed by these Athenian successes, the Persians stopped backing the allies and began supporting Sparta. This defection forced the allies to seek peace. The King's Peace, also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was signed in 387 BC, ending the war. This treaty declared that Persia would control all of Ionia, and that all other Greek cities would be independent. Sparta was to be the guardian of the peace, with the power to enforce its clauses. The effects of the war, therefore, were to establish Persia's ability to interfere successfully in Greek politics and to affirm Sparta's hegemonic position in the Greek political system. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 119 Audioversity
What is Epsilon? Explain Epsilon, Define Epsilon, Meaning of Epsilon
 
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~~~ Epsilon ~~~ Title: What is Epsilon? Explain Epsilon, Define Epsilon, Meaning of Epsilon Created on: 2018-08-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epsilon ------ Description: Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid front unrounded vowel /e/. In the system of Greek numerals it also has the value five. It was derived from the Phoenician letter He . Letters that arose from epsilon include the Roman E, Ë and Ɛ, and Cyrillic Е, È, Ё, Є and Э. The name of the letter was originally εἶ , but the name was changed to ἒ ψιλόν in the Middle Ages to distinguish the letter from the digraph αι, a former diphthong that had come to be pronounced the same as epsilon. In essence, the uppercase form of epsilon looks identical to Latin E. The lowercase version has two typographical variants, both inherited from medieval Greek handwriting. One, the most common in modern typography and inherited from medieval minuscule, looks like a reversed "3". The other, also known as lunate or uncial epsilon and inherited from earlier uncial writing, looks like a semicircle crossed by a horizontal bar. While in normal typography these are just alternative font variants, they may have different meanings as mathematical symbols. Computer systems therefore offer distinct encodings for them. In Unicode, the character U+03F5 "Greek lunate epsilon symbol" is provided specifically for the lunate form. In TeX, \epsilon denotes the lunate form, while \varepsilon denotes the reversed-3 form. There is also a Latin epsilon or "open e", which looks similar to the Greek lowercase epsilon. It is encoded in Unicode as U+025B and U+0190 and is used as an IPA phonetic symbol. The lunate or uncial epsilon has also provided inspiration for the euro sign . The lunate epsilon is not to be confused with the set membership symbol ; nor should the Latin uppercase epsilon be confused with the Greek uppercase sigma . The symbol ∈ {\displaystyle \in } , first used in set theory and logic by Giuseppe Peano and now used in mathematics in general for set membership did, however, evolve from the letter epsilon, since the symbol was originally used as an abbreviation for the Latin word "est". In addition, mathematicians often read the symbol ∈ {\displaystyle \in } as "element of", as in "1 is an element of the natural numbers" for 1 ∈ N {\displaystyle 1\in \mathbb {N} } , for example. As late as 1960, ϵ {\displaystyle \epsilon } itself was used for set membership, while its negation "does not belong to" was denoted by ϵ ′ {\displaystyle \epsilon '} . Only gradually did a fully separate, stylized symbol take the place of epsilon in this role. In a related context, Peano also introduced the use of a backwards epsilon, ∍ {\displaystyle \backepsilon } , for the phrase "such that", although the abbreviation "s.t." is occasionally used in place of ∍ {\displaystyle \backepsilon } in informal writing. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 264 Audioversity
What is Entrez? Explain Entrez, Define Entrez, Meaning of Entrez
 
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~~~ Entrez ~~~ Title: What is Entrez? Explain Entrez, Define Entrez, Meaning of Entrez Created on: 2018-10-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entrez ------ Description: The Entrez Global Query Cross-Database Search System is a federated search engine, or web portal that allows users to search many discrete health sciences databases at the National Center for Biotechnology Information website. The NCBI is a part of the National Library of Medicine , which is itself a department of the National Institutes of Health , which in turn is a part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The name "Entrez" was chosen to reflect the spirit of welcoming the public to search the content available from the NLM. Entrez Global Query is an integrated search and retrieval system that provides access to all databases simultaneously with a single query string and user interface. Entrez can efficiently retrieve related sequences, structures, and references. The Entrez system can provide views of gene and protein sequences and chromosome maps. Some textbooks are also available online through the Entrez system. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 251 Audioversity
What is Transculturation?, Explain Transculturation, Define Transculturation
 
03:46
~~~ Transculturation ~~~ Title: What is Transculturation?, Explain Transculturation, Define Transculturation Created on: 2018-08-28 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transculturation ------ Description: Transculturation is a term coined by Cuban anthropologist Fernando Ortiz in 1947 to describe the phenomenon of merging and converging cultures. Transculturation encompasses more than transition from one culture to another; it does not consist merely of acquiring another culture or of losing or uprooting a previous culture . Rather, it merges these concepts and additionally carries the idea of the consequent creation of new cultural phenomena . Ortiz also referred to the devastating impact of Spanish colonialism on Cuba's indigenous peoples as a "failed transculturation". Transculturation can often be the result of colonial conquest and subjugation, especially in a postcolonial era as native peoples struggle to regain their own sense of identity. In simple terms, transculturation reflects the natural tendency of people to resolve conflicts over time, rather than exacerbating them. Where transculturation impacts ethnicity and ethnic issues the term "ethnoconvergence" is sometimes used.In one general sense, transculturation covers war, ethnic conflict, racism, multiculturalism, cross-culturalism, interracial marriage, and any other of a number of contexts that deal with more than one culture. In the other general sense, transculturation is one aspect of global phenomena and human events. The general processes of transculturation are extremely complex—steered by powerful forces at the macrosocial level, yet ultimately resolved at the interpersonal level. The driving force for conflict is simple proximity—boundaries, once separating people become the issue of a conflict when societies encroach upon one another territorially. If a means to co-exist cannot be immediately found, then conflicts can be hostile, leading to a process by which contact between individuals leads to some resolution. Often, history shows us, the processes of co-existence begins with hostilities, and with the natural passing of polarist individuals, comes the passing of their polarist sentiments, and soon some resolution is achieved. Degrees of hostile conflict vary from outright genocidal conquest, to lukewarm infighting between differing political views within the same ethnic community.These changes often represent differences between homeland pons, and their diasporic communities abroad. Nevertheless, obstacles to ethnoconvergence are not great. The primary issue; language, can be overcome within a single generation—as is evident in the easy acclimation of children of foreign parents. English, for example, is spoken by more non-Anglo-American people than Anglo-Americans, making it the current lingua-franca, the worldwide de facto standard international language. Processes of transculturation become more complex within the context of globalization, given the multiple layers of abstraction that permeate everyday experiences. Elizabeth Kath argues that in the global era we can no longer consider transculturation only in relation to the face-to-face, but that we need to take into account the many layers of abstracted interactions that are interwoven through face-to-face encounters, a phenomenon that she describes as layers of transculturation. Kath draws upon the concept of constitutive abstraction as seen in the work of Australian social theorists Geoff Sharp and Paul James. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 277 Audioversity
What is Chamba people? Explain Chamba people, Define Chamba people, Meaning of Chamba people
 
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~~~ Chamba people ~~~ Title: What is Chamba people? Explain Chamba people, Define Chamba people, Meaning of Chamba people Created on: 2018-09-02 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamba_people ------ Description: The Chamba people, also known as Samba, Tchamba, Tsamba, Daka and Chamba-Ndagan, are an African ethnic group found in the Gongola State of east-central Nigeria and neighboring parts of north Cameroon. They speak two distantly related languages: Chamba Leko, of the Leko–Nimbari languages, and Chamba Daka, of the Dakoid languages, both of which are a Niger-Congo language.Boyd says that the “Chamba Leko speakers are restricted to the easternmost part of the central area, for the most part on the Cameroon part of the modern border. The remainder of the Chamba are Daka-speaking”. The Chamba speakers still speak various other dialects that are different from place to place. The central area is where the Chamba Daka live. That area is found in North east of Nigeria on the Cameroon border in Adamawa State.The original colonial power who annexed the Chambaland were the Germans, but when Germany lost the First World War, this territory in Africa was divided by the League of Nations between British and France. “Where the majority of the Chamba live, straddles the present border between Nigeria and Cameroon”.The Chamba people have their own particular religious beliefs known as the Chamba religion. The Traditional Religion of the Chamba is premised on a creator solar God and ancestor spirits who live with this creator. The sun god does not interact with living beings, but the ancestor spirits do. The dead are believed to continue living, but they live below the ground, follow the same style and sophistication as humans, but they are believed to be wiser and with supernatural power. Special people among the Chamba are believed to be able to interact with these ancestral spirits and they are revered by the Chamba people.The Chamba people were one of the targets of Fulani jihads in the 18th and 19th century. They were enslaved, and many migrated south into the mountains. They retaliated becoming raiding bands who attacked slave and trading caravans. A minority, or about 15%, of the Chamba people adhere to Islam.The Chamba traditionally live in grassland area, farming cereal staples and cash crops such as cocoa and coffee. They are skilled artists known for their pottery, metal work and sculpture.The Chamba people are a significant ethnic groups in the north eastern Nigeria. The closest chamba neighbours are the Mumuye, the Fulani and the Jukun and Kutep people. In Cameroon, the successors of Leko and chamba speakers are divided into several states: Bali Nyonga, Bali Kumbat, Bali-Gham, Bali-Gangsin, and Bali-Gashu. The Basari people of Togo and Ghana also go by the name Chamba, but they are ethnically distinct. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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