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What is Business incubator?, Explain Business incubator, Define Business incubator
 
02:07
~~~ Business incubator ~~~ Title: What is Business incubator?, Explain Business incubator, Define Business incubator Created on: 2018-09-24 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Business_incubator ------ Description: A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. The National Business Incubation Association defines business incubators as a catalyst tool for either regional or national economic development. NBIA categorizes their members’ incubators by the following five incubator types: academic institutions; non-profit development corporations; for-profit property development ventures; venture capital firms, and combination of the above.Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to very small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs.Incubators also differ from the U.S. Small Business Administration's Small Business Development Centers in that they serve only selected clients. SBDCs are required by law to offer general business assistance to any company that contacts them for help. In addition, SBDCs work with any small business at any stage of development, not only startup companies. Many business incubation programs partner with their local SBDC to create a "one-stop shop" for entrepreneurial support.Within European Union countries there are different EU and state funded programs that offer support in form of consulting, mentoring, prototype creation and other services and co-funding for them. TecHub is one of examples for IT companies and ideas. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 3701 Audioversity
What is Sephardi Jews? Explain Sephardi Jews, Define Sephardi Jews, Meaning of Sephardi Jews
 
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~~~ Sephardi Jews ~~~ Title: What is Sephardi Jews? Explain Sephardi Jews, Define Sephardi Jews, Meaning of Sephardi Jews Created on: 2018-08-30 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sephardi_Jews ------ Description: Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim , originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division. They established communities throughout areas of modern Spain and Portugal, where they traditionally resided, evolving what would become their distinctive characteristics and diasporic identity, which they took with them in their exile from Iberia beginning in the late 15th century to North Africa, Anatolia, the Levant, Southeastern and Southern Europe, as well as the Americas, and all other places of their exiled settlement, either alongside pre-existing co-religionists, or alone as the first Jews in new frontiers. Their millennial residence as an open and organised Jewish community in Iberia began to decline with the Reconquista and was brought to an end starting with the Alhambra Decree by Spain's Catholic Monarchs in 1492, and then by the edict of expulsion of Jews and Muslims by Portuguese king Manuel I in 1496, which resulted in a combination of internal and external migrations, mass conversions and executions. More broadly, the term Sephardim has today also come sometimes to refer to traditionally Eastern Jewish communities of West Asia and beyond who, although not having genealogical roots in the Jewish communities of Iberia, have adopted a Sephardic style of liturgy and Sephardic law and customs imparted to them by the Iberian Jewish exiles over the course of the last few centuries. This article deals with Sephardim within the narrower ethnic definition. Historically, the vernacular languages of Sephardim and their descendants have been variants of either Spanish or Portuguese, though other tongues had been adopted and adapted throughout their history. The historical forms of Spanish or Portuguese that differing Sephardic communities spoke communally was determined by the date of their departure from Iberia, and their condition of departure as Jews or New Christians. Judaeo-Spanish, sometimes called "Ladino Oriental" , was a Romance language derived from Old Spanish, incorporating elements from all the old Romance languages of the Iberian Peninsula, Hebrew and Aramaic, and was spoken by what became the Eastern Sephardim, who settled in the Eastern Mediterranean, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. This dialect was further influenced by Ottoman Turkish, Levantine Arabic, Greek, Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian vocabulary in the differing lands of their exile. Haketia , an Arabic-influenced Judaeo-Spanish variety also derived from Old Spanish, with numerous Hebrew and Aramaic terms was spoken by North African Sephardim, taken with them in the 15th century after the expulsion from Spain in 1492. The main feature of this dialect is the heavy influence of the Jebli Arabic dialect of northern Morocco. Early Modern Spanish and Early Modern Portuguese, including in a mixture of the two was traditionally spoken or used liturgically by the ex-converso Western Sephardim, taken with them during their later migration out of Iberia between the 16th and 18th centuries as conversos, after which they reverted to Judaism. Modern Spanish and Modern Portuguese varieties, traditionally spoken by the Sephardic Bnei Anusim of Iberia and Ibero-America, including some recent returnees to Judaism in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. In this latter case, these varieties have incorporated loanwords from the indigenous languages of the Americas introduced following the Spanish conquest. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1382 Audioversity
What is Hereditary spastic paraplegia?, Explain Hereditary spastic paraplegia
 
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~~~ Hereditary spastic paraplegia ~~~ Title: What is Hereditary spastic paraplegia?, Explain Hereditary spastic paraplegia Created on: 2018-10-23 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hereditary_spastic_paraplegia ------ Description: Hereditary spastic paraplegia is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is a progressive gait disorder. The disease presents with progressive stiffness and contraction in the lower limbs. HSP is also known as hereditary spastic paraparesis, familial spastic paraplegia, French settlement disease, or Strumpell-Lorrain disease. The symptoms are a result of dysfunction of long axons in the spinal cord. The affected cells are the primary motor neurons; therefore, the disease is an upper motor neuron disease. HSP is not a form of cerebral palsy even though it physically may appear and behave much the same as spastic diplegia. The origin of HSP is different from cerebral palsy. Despite this, some of the same anti-spasticity medications used in spastic cerebral palsy are sometimes used to treat HSP symptoms. HSP is caused by defects in transport of proteins, structural proteins, cell maintaining proteins, lipids, and other substances through the cell. Long nerve fibers are affected because long distances make nerve cells particularly sensitive to defects in these mentioned mechanisms.The disease was first mentioned in 1876 by Adolph Seeligmüller, a German neurologist, who described a family of four affected children with spasticity. Further cases were described in 1883 by Adolph Strümpell, a German neurologist. Those cases were described more extensively in 1888 by Maurice Lorrain, a French physician. Due to their contribution in describing the disease, it is still named Strümpell-Lorrain disease in French speaking countries. The term hereditary spastic paraplegia was coined by Anita Harding in 1983. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 941 Audioversity
What is Cross-cultural psychology?, Explain Cross-cultural psychology
 
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~~~ Cross-cultural psychology ~~~ Title: What is Cross-cultural psychology?, Explain Cross-cultural psychology Created on: 2018-09-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross-cultural_psychology ------ Description: Cross-cultural psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes, including both their variability and invariance, under diverse cultural conditions. Through expanding research methodologies to recognize cultural variance in behavior, language, and meaning it seeks to extend and develop psychology. Since psychology as an academic discipline was developed largely in North America and Europe, some psychologists became concerned that constructs accepted as universal were not as invariant as previously assumed, especially since many attempts to replicate notable experiments in other cultures had varying success. Since there are questions as to whether theories dealing with central themes, such as affect, cognition, conceptions of the self, and issues such as psychopathology, anxiety, and depression, may lack external validity when "exported" to other cultural contexts, cross-cultural psychology re-examines them using methodologies designed to factor in cultural differences so as to account for cultural variance. Although some critics have pointed to methodological flaws in cross-cultural psychological research and claim that serious shortcomings in the theoretical and methodological bases used impede rather than help the scientific search for universal principles in psychology, cross-cultural psychologists are turning more to the study of how differences occur, rather than searching for universals in the style of physics or chemistry.While cross-cultural psychology represented only a minor area of psychology prior to WWII, it began to grow in importance during the 1960s. In 1971, the interdisciplinary Society for Cross-Cultural Research was founded, and in 1972 the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology was established. Since then, this branch of psychology has continued to expand as there has been an increasing popularity of incorporating culture and diversity into studies of numerous psychological phenomena. Cross-cultural psychology is differentiated from cultural psychology, which refers to the branch of psychology that holds that human behavior is strongly influenced by cultural differences, meaning that psychological phenomena can only be compared with each other across cultures to a limited extent. In contrast, cross-cultural psychology includes a search for possible universals in behavior and mental processes. Cross-cultural psychology "can be thought of as a type research methodology, rather than an entirely separate field within psychology". In addition, cross-cultural psychology can be distinguished from international psychology which centers around the global expansion of psychology especially during recent decades. Nevertheless, cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology, and international psychology are united by a common concern for expanding psychology into a universal discipline capable of understanding psychological phenomena across cultures and in a global context. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1363 Audioversity
What is Commonwealth of Nations?, Explain Commonwealth of Nations, Define Commonwealth of Nations
 
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~~~ Commonwealth of Nations ~~~ Title: What is Commonwealth of Nations?, Explain Commonwealth of Nations, Define Commonwealth of Nations Created on: 2018-10-14 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations ------ Description: The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.The Commonwealth dates back to the first half of the 20th century with the decolonisation of the British Empire through increased self-governance of its territories. It was originally created as the British Commonwealth of Nations through the Balfour Declaration at the 1926 Imperial Conference, and formalised by the United Kingdom through the Statute of Westminster in 1931. The current Commonwealth of Nations was formally constituted by the London Declaration in 1949, which modernised the community, and established the member states as "free and equal". The symbol of this free association is Queen Elizabeth II, who is the Head of the Commonwealth. The Queen is head of state of 16 member states, known as the Commonwealth realms, while 32 other members are republics and five others have different monarchs. Member states have no legal obligations to one another. Instead, they are united by language, history, culture and their shared values of democracy, human rights and the rule of law. These values are enshrined in the Commonwealth Charter and promoted by the quadrennial Commonwealth Games. The countries of the Commonwealth covers more than 29,958,050 km2 , equivalent to 20% of the world's land area and spans all six inhabited continents. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1552 Audioversity
What is Miami Showband killings?, Explain Miami Showband killings, Define Miami Showband killings
 
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~~~ Miami Showband killings ~~~ Title: What is Miami Showband killings?, Explain Miami Showband killings, Define Miami Showband killings Created on: 2018-09-03 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miami_Showband_killings ------ Description: The Miami Showband killings was an attack on 31 July 1975 by the Ulster Volunteer Force , a loyalist paramilitary group. It took place on the A1 road at Buskhill in County Down, Northern Ireland. Five people were killed, including three members of The Miami Showband, who were one of Ireland's most popular cabaret bands. The band was travelling home to Dublin late at night after a performance in Banbridge. Halfway to Newry, their minibus was stopped at what appeared to be a military checkpoint where gunmen in British Army uniforms ordered them to line up by the roadside. At least four of the gunmen were serving soldiers from the British Army's Ulster Defence Regiment , but all were members of the UVF, unbeknownst to the band. Two of the gunmen were hiding a time bomb on the minibus when it exploded and killed them. The other gunmen then opened fire on the dazed band members, killing three and wounding two. It is believed that the bomb was meant to explode en route, killing the band and framing them as IRA bomb-smugglers and possibly leading to stricter security measures at the border. Two serving British soldiers and one former British soldier were found guilty of the murders and received life sentences; they were released in 1998. Those responsible for the attack belonged to the Glenanne gang, a secret alliance of loyalist militants, rogue police officers, and British soldiers. There are also allegations that British military intelligence agents were involved. According to former Intelligence Corps agent Captain Fred Holroyd, the killings were organised by British intelligence officer Robert Nairac, together with the UVF's Mid-Ulster Brigade and its commander Robin "The Jackal" Jackson. The Historical Enquiries Team investigated the killings and released their report to the victims' families in December 2011. It confirmed that Jackson was linked to the attack by fingerprints. The massacre dealt a blow to Northern Ireland's live music which had brought young Catholics and Protestants together. In a report published in the Sunday Mirror in 1999, Colin Wills called the Miami Showband attack "one of the worst atrocities in the 30-year history of the Troubles". Irish Times diarist Frank McNally summed up the massacre as "an incident that encapsulated all the madness of the time". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 995 Audioversity
What is Non-governmental organization?, Explain Non-governmental organization
 
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#Non-governmentalorganization #audioversity ~~~ Non-governmental organization ~~~ Title: What is Non-governmental organization?, Explain Non-governmental organization Created on: 2018-12-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Non-governmental_organization ------ Description: Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to affect changes according to their objectives. They are thus a subgroup of all organizations founded by citizens, which include clubs and other associations that provide services, benefits, and premises only to members. Sometimes the term is used as a synonym of "civil society organization" to refer to any association founded by citizens, but this is not how the term is normally used in the media or everyday language, as recorded by major dictionaries. The explanation of the term by NGO.org is ambivalent. It first says an NGO is any non-profit, voluntary citizens' group which is organized on a local, national or international level, but then goes on to restrict the meaning in the sense used by most English speakers and the media: Task-oriented and driven by people with a common interest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizen concerns to Governments, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provision of information.NGOs are usually funded by donations, but some avoid formal funding altogether and are run primarily by volunteers. NGOs are highly diverse groups of organizations engaged in a wide range of activities, and take different forms in different parts of the world. Some may have charitable status, while others may be registered for tax exemption based on recognition of social purposes. Others may be fronts for political, religious, or other interests. Since the end of World War II, NGOs have had an increasing role in international development, particularly in the fields of humanitarian assistance and poverty alleviation.The number of NGOs worldwide is estimated to be 10 million. Russia had about 277,000 NGOs in 2008. India is estimated to have had around 2 million NGOs in 2009, just over one NGO per 600 Indians, and many times the number of primary schools and primary health centres in India. China is estimated to have approximately 440,000 officially registered NGOs. About 1.5 million domestic and foreign NGOs operated in the United States in 2017.The term 'NGO' is not always used consistently. In some countries the term NGO is applied to an organization that in another country would be called an NPO , and vice versa. Political parties and trade unions are considered NGOs only in some countries. There are many different classifications of NGO in use. The most common focus is on "orientation" and "level of operation". An NGO's orientation refers to the type of activities it takes on. These activities might include human rights, environmental, improving health, or development work. An NGO's level of operation indicates the scale at which an organization works, such as local, regional, national, or international.The term "non-governmental organization" was first coined in 1945, when the United Nations was created. The UN, itself an intergovernmental organization, made it possible for certain approved specialized international non-state agencies — i.e., non-governmental organizations — to be awarded observer status at its assemblies and some of its meetings. Later the term became used more widely. Today, according to the UN, any kind of private organization that is independent from government control can be termed an "NGO", provided it is not-for-profit, non-prevention, but not simply an opposition political party. One characteristic these diverse organizations share is that their non-profit status means they are not hindered by short-term financial objectives. Accordingly, they are able to devote themselves to issues which occur across longer time horizons, such as climate change, malaria prevention, or a global ban on landmines. Public surveys reveal that NGOs often enjoy a high degree of public trust, which can make them a useful - but not always sufficient - proxy for the concerns of society and stakeholders. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 5250 Audioversity
What is Enculturation? Explain Enculturation, Define Enculturation, Meaning of Enculturation
 
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~~~ Enculturation ~~~ Title: What is Enculturation? Explain Enculturation, Define Enculturation, Meaning of Enculturation Created on: 2018-08-31 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enculturation ------ Description: Enculturation is the process by which people learn the dynamics of their surrounding culture and acquire values and norms appropriate or necessary in that culture and worldviews. As part of this process, the influences that limit, direct, or shape the individual include parents, other adults, and peers. If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values, and rituals of the culture.Enculturation is related to socialization. In some academic fields, socialization refers to the deliberate shaping of the individual. In others, the word may cover both deliberate and informal enculturation.Conrad Phillip Kottak writes: Enculturation is the process where the culture that is currently established teaches an individual the accepted norms and values of the culture or society where the individual lives. The individual can become an accepted member and fulfill the needed functions and roles of the group. Most importantly the individual knows and establishes a context of boundaries and accepted behavior that dictates what is acceptable and not acceptable within the framework of that society. It teaches the individual their role within society as well as what is accepted behavior within that society and lifestyle. Enculturation is sometimes referred to as acculturation, a word recently used to more distinctively refer only to exchanges of cultural features with foreign cultures. Note that this is a recent development, as acculturation in some literatures has the same meaning as enculturation. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 2386 Audioversity
What is The Marriage of Heaven and Hell?, Explain The Marriage of Heaven and Hell
 
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#TheMarriageofHeavenandHell #audioversity ~~~ The Marriage of Heaven and Hell ~~~ Title: What is The Marriage of Heaven and Hell?, Explain The Marriage of Heaven and Hell Created on: 2019-02-06 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Marriage_of_Heaven_and_Hell ------ Description: The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is a book by the English poet and printmaker William Blake. It is a series of texts written in imitation of biblical prophecy but expressing Blake's own intensely personal Romantic and revolutionary beliefs. Like his other books, it was published as printed sheets from etched plates containing prose, poetry and illustrations. The plates were then coloured by Blake and his wife Catherine. It opens with an introduction of a short poem "Rintrah roars and shakes his fires in the burden'd air". William Blake claims that John Milton as a true poet and his epic poem Paradise Lost was "of the Devil's party without knowing it." He also claims that Milton's Satan was truly his Messiah. The work was composed between 1790 and 1793, in the period of radical ferment and political conflict immediately after the French Revolution. The title is an ironic reference to Emanuel Swedenborg's theological work Heaven and Hell, published in Latin 33 years earlier. Swedenborg is directly cited and criticized by Blake in several places in the Marriage. Though Blake was influenced by his grand and mystical cosmic conception, Swedenborg's conventional moral strictures and his Manichaean view of good and evil led Blake to express a deliberately depolarized and unified vision of the cosmos in which the material world and physical desire are equally part of the divine order; hence, a marriage of heaven and hell. The book is written in prose, except for the opening "Argument" and the "Song of Liberty". The book describes the poet's visit to Hell, a device adopted by Blake from Dante's Divine Comedy and Milton's Paradise Lost. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 413 Audioversity
What is Amitriptyline? Explain Amitriptyline, Define Amitriptyline, Meaning of Amitriptyline
 
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#Amitriptyline #audioversity ~~~ Amitriptyline ~~~ Title: What is Amitriptyline? Explain Amitriptyline, Define Amitriptyline, Meaning of Amitriptyline Created on: 2018-11-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amitriptyline ------ Description: Amitriptyline, sold under the brand name Elavil among others, is a medicine primarily used to treat a number of mental illnesses. These include major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, and less commonly attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. Other uses include prevention of migraines, treatment of neuropathic pain such as fibromyalgia and postherpetic neuralgia, and less commonly insomnia. It is in the tricyclic antidepressant class and its exact mechanism of action is unclear. Amitriptyline is taken by mouth.Common side effects include a dry mouth, trouble seeing, low blood pressure on standing, sleepiness, and constipation. Serious side effects may include seizures, an increased risk of suicide in those less than 25 years of age, urinary retention, glaucoma, and a number of heart issues. It should not be taken with MAO inhibitors or the medication cisapride. Amitriptyline may cause problems if taken during pregnancy. Use during breastfeeding appears to be relatively safe.Amitriptyline was discovered in 1960 and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 1961. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world as of 2014 was between 0.01 and 0.04 USD per dose. In the United States it costs about 0.20 USD per dose. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 775 Audioversity
What is Dictatorship of the proletariat?, Explain Dictatorship of the proletariat
 
04:08
~~~ Dictatorship of the proletariat ~~~ Title: What is Dictatorship of the proletariat?, Explain Dictatorship of the proletariat Created on: 2018-08-27 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictatorship_of_the_proletariat ------ Description: In Marxist sociopolitical thought, the dictatorship of the proletariat refers to a state in which the proletariat, or the working class, has control of political power. According to this theory, it is the intermediate system between capitalism and communism, when the government is in the process of changing the ownership of the means of production from private to collective ownership, and the existence of any government implies the dictatorship of one social class over another. The term, coined by Joseph Weydemeyer, was adopted in the 19th century by the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels; both of them argued that the short-lived Paris Commune, which ran the French capital for over two months in 1871 before being suppressed, was an example of the dictatorship of the proletariat. "Dictatorship of the bourgeoisie" is thus used as an antonym of "dictatorship of the proletariat".It is termed "dictatorship" because it retains the state apparatus as such, with its implements of force and oppression, but differs from the popular notion of dictatorship which Marxists despise as the selfish, immoral, irresponsible and unconstitutional political rule of one man. It instead implies a stage where there is complete "socialization of the major means of production", in other words planning of material production so as to serve social needs, provide for an effective right to work, education, health and housing for the masses and fuller development of science and technology so as to multiply material production to achieve greater social satisfaction. However, social division into classes still exists, but the proletariat become the dominant class and oppression is still used to suppress the bourgeois counter-revolution. There are two main trends for this political thought, yet both of them retain the state apparatus for its enforcement capabilities: Marxism–Leninism follows the ideas of Marxism and Leninism as interpreted by Vladimir Lenin's successor Joseph Stalin. It seeks to establish a vanguard party to lead a proletarian uprising, to assume state power on behalf of the proletariat and to construct a single-party socialist state representing a dictatorship of the proletariat, governed through the process of democratic centralism, which Lenin described as "diversity in discussion, unity in action". Marxism–Leninism forms the official ideology of the ruling parties of China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam and was the official ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and of the other ruling parties making up the Eastern Bloc. Libertarian Marxists, especially Luxemburgists, criticize Marxism–Leninism for its differences from orthodox Marxism and oppose the Leninist principle of democratic centralism and the Leninist strategy of vanguardism. Along with Trotskyists, they also oppose the use of a one-party state which they view as inherently undemocratic, although Trotskyists are still Bolsheviks, subscribing to vanguard party, democratic centralism and soviet democracy, seeing themselves as the true successors of Leninism. Rosa Luxemburg, a Marxist theorist, emphasized the role of the dictatorship of the proletariat as the rule of the whole class, representing the majority and not a single party, characterizing the dictatorship of the proletariat as a concept meant to expand democracy rather than reduce it as opposed to minority rule in the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie, the only other class state power can reside in according to Marxist theory.Friedrich Hayek argued in the book The Road to Serfdom that the dictatorship of the proletariat would always result in violence and autocracy: "A true 'dictatorship of the proletariat', even if democratic in form, if it undertook centrally to direct the economic system, would probably destroy personal freedom as completely as any autocracy has ever done." ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1424 Audioversity
What is Perry Rhodan? Explain Perry Rhodan, Define Perry Rhodan, Meaning of Perry Rhodan
 
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~~~ Perry Rhodan ~~~ Title: What is Perry Rhodan? Explain Perry Rhodan, Define Perry Rhodan, Meaning of Perry Rhodan Created on: 2018-08-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perry_Rhodan ------ Description: Perry Rhodan is the eponymous hero of a German science fiction novel series which has been published each week since 8 September 1961 in the 'Romanhefte' format by Pabel-Moewig Verlag, a subsidiary of Bauer Media Group. As of March 2018, almost 2950 booklet novels of the original series plus 850 spinoff novels of the sister series Atlan plus over 400 paperbacks and 200 hardcovers have been published, totalling over 300,000 pages. Having sold approximately two billion copies worldwide alone, , it is the most successful science fiction book series ever written. The first billion of worldwide sales was celebrated in 1986.The first 126 novels were translated into English and published by Ace Books between 1969 and 1978, with the same translations used for the British edition published by Futura Publications which issued only 39 novels. When Ace cancelled its translation of the series, translator Wendayne Ackerman self-published the following 19 novels and made them available by subscription only. Financial disputes with the German publishers led to the cancellation of the American translation in 1979. An attempt to revive the series in English was made in 1997–1998 by Vector Publications of the US which published translations of four issues from the current storyline being published in Germany at the time. The series and its spin-offs have captured a substantial fraction of the original German science fiction output and exert influence on many German writers in the field. The series is told in an arc storyline structure. An arc—called a "cycle"—would have anywhere from 25 to 100 issues devoted to it, similar subsequent cycles are referred to as a "grand-cycle".Matthias Rust, the then-19 year old aviator who landed his Cessna 172 aircraft on the Red Square in Moscow in 1987, has cited Perry Rhodan's adventures as his main inspiration to penetrate Soviet airspace. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
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What is Libido? Explain Libido, Define Libido, Meaning of Libido
 
02:14
#Libido #audioversity ~~~ Libido ~~~ Title: What is Libido? Explain Libido, Define Libido, Meaning of Libido Created on: 2019-02-21 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Libido ------ Description: Libido is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity. Libido is influenced by biological, psychological and social factors. Biologically, the sex hormones and associated neurotransmitters that act upon the nucleus accumbens regulate libido in humans. Social factors, such as work and family, and internal psychological factors, such as personality and stress, can affect libido. Libido can also be affected by medical conditions, medications, lifestyle and relationship issues, and age . A person who has extremely frequent or a suddenly increased sex drive may be experiencing hypersexuality, while the opposite condition is hyposexuality. A person may have a desire for sex, but not have the opportunity to act on that desire, or may on personal, moral or religious reasons refrain from acting on the urge. Psychologically, a person's urge can be repressed or sublimated. On the other hand, a person can engage in sexual activity without an actual desire for it. Multiple factors affect human sex drive, including stress, illness, pregnancy, and others. A 2001 review found that on average, men have a higher desire for sex than women.Sexual desires are often an important factor in the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships in humans. A lack or loss of sexual desire can adversely affect relationships. Changes in the sexual desires of any partner in a sexual relationship, if sustained and unresolved, may cause problems in the relationship. The infidelity of a partner may be an indication that a partner's changing sexual desires can no longer be satisfied within the current relationship. Problems can arise from disparity of sexual desires between partners, or poor communication between partners of sexual needs and preferences. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1168 Audioversity
What is The Time Traveler's Wife?, Explain The Time Traveler's Wife, Define The Time Traveler's Wife
 
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~~~ The Time Traveler's Wife ~~~ Title: What is The Time Traveler's Wife?, Explain The Time Traveler's Wife, Define The Time Traveler's Wife Created on: 2018-10-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Time_Traveler%27s_Wife ------ Description: The Time Traveler's Wife is the debut novel of American author Audrey Niffenegger, published in 2003. It is a love story about a man with a genetic disorder that causes him to time travel unpredictably, and about his wife, an artist, who has to cope with his frequent absences and dangerous experiences. Niffenegger, frustrated in love when she began the work, wrote the story as a metaphor for her failed relationships. The tale's central relationship came to her suddenly and subsequently supplied the novel's title. The novel, which has been classified as both science fiction and romance, examines issues of love, loss, and free will. In particular, it uses time travel to explore miscommunication and distance in relationships, while also investigating deeper existential questions. As a first-time novelist, Niffenegger had trouble finding a literary agent. She eventually sent the novel to MacAdam/Cage unsolicited and, after an auction took place for the rights, Niffenegger selected them as her publishers. The book became a bestseller after an endorsement from author and family friend Scott Turow on The Today Show, and as of March 2009 had sold nearly 2.5 million copies in the United States and the United Kingdom. Many reviewers were impressed with Niffenegger's unique perspectives on time travel. Some praised her characterization of the couple, applauding their emotional depth; others criticized her writing style as melodramatic and the plot as emotionally trite. The novel won the Exclusive Books Boeke Prize and a British Book Award. A film version was released in August 2009. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 749 Audioversity
What is Computer-assisted language learning?, Explain Computer-assisted language learning
 
02:50
#Computer-assistedlanguagelearning #audioversity ~~~ Computer-assisted language learning ~~~ Title: What is Computer-assisted language learning?, Explain Computer-assisted language learning Created on: 2018-12-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-assisted_language_learning ------ Description: Computer-assisted language learning , British, or Computer-Aided Instruction /Computer-Aided Language Instruction , American, is briefly defined in a seminal work by Levy as "the search for and study of applications of the computer in language teaching and learning". CALL embraces a wide range of information and communications technology applications and approaches to teaching and learning foreign languages, from the "traditional" drill-and-practice programs that characterised CALL in the 1960s and 1970s to more recent manifestations of CALL, e.g. as used in a virtual learning environment and Web-based distance learning. It also extends to the use of corpora and concordancers, interactive whiteboards, Computer-mediated communication , language learning in virtual worlds, and mobile-assisted language learning .The term CALI was in use before CALL, reflecting its origins as a subset of the general term CAI . CALI fell out of favour among language teachers, however, as it appeared to imply a teacher-centred approach , whereas language teachers are more inclined to prefer a student-centred approach, focusing on learning rather than instruction. CALL began to replace CALI in the early 1980s and it is now incorporated into the names of the growing number of professional associations worldwide. An alternative term, technology-enhanced language learning , also emerged around the early 1990s: e.g. the TELL Consortium project, University of Hull. The current philosophy of CALL puts a strong emphasis on student-centred materials that allow learners to work on their own. Such materials may be structured or unstructured, but they normally embody two important features: interactive learning and individualised learning. CALL is essentially a tool that helps teachers to facilitate the language learning process. It can be used to reinforce what has already been learned in the classroom or as a remedial tool to help learners who require additional support. The design of CALL materials generally takes into consideration principles of language pedagogy and methodology, which may be derived from different learning theories and second-language learning theories such as Stephen Krashen's monitor hypothesis. A combination of face-to-face teaching and CALL is usually referred to as blended learning. Blended learning is designed to increase learning potential and is more commonly found than pure CALL .See Davies et al. . See also Levy & Hubbard , who raise the question Why call CALL "CALL"? ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1302 Audioversity
What is Biography? Explain Biography, Define Biography, Meaning of Biography
 
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~~~ Biography ~~~ Title: What is Biography? Explain Biography, Define Biography, Meaning of Biography Created on: 2018-10-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biography ------ Description: A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae , a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are usually non-fiction, but fiction can also be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, cooperation, and at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 3119 Audioversity
What is Westminster Confession of Faith?, Explain Westminster Confession of Faith
 
01:40
~~~ Westminster Confession of Faith ~~~ Title: What is Westminster Confession of Faith?, Explain Westminster Confession of Faith Created on: 2018-09-02 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Westminster_Confession_of_Faith ------ Description: The Westminster Confession of Faith is a Reformed confession of faith. Drawn up by the 1646 Westminster Assembly as part of the Westminster Standards to be a confession of the Church of England, it became and remains the "subordinate standard" of doctrine in the Church of Scotland and has been influential within Presbyterian churches worldwide. In 1643, the English Parliament called upon "learned, godly and judicious Divines" to meet at Westminster Abbey in order to provide advice on issues of worship, doctrine, government and discipline of the Church of England. Their meetings, over a period of five years, produced the confession of faith, as well as a Larger Catechism and a Shorter Catechism. For more than three hundred years, various churches around the world have adopted the confession and the catechisms as their standards of doctrine, subordinate to the Bible. The Westminster Confession of Faith was modified and adopted by Congregationalists in England in the form of the Savoy Declaration . Likewise, the Baptists of England modified the Savoy Declaration to produce the Second London Baptist Confession . English Presbyterians, Congregationalists, and Baptists would together come to be known as Nonconformists, because they did not conform to the Act of Uniformity establishing the Church of England as the only legally approved church, though they were in many ways united by their common confessions, built on the Westminster Confession. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 528 Audioversity
What is Nature? Explain Nature, Define Nature, Meaning of Nature
 
02:31
~~~ Nature ~~~ Title: What is Nature? Explain Nature, Define Nature, Meaning of Nature Created on: 2018-07-12 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nature ------ Description: Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe. "Nature" can refer to the phenomena of the physical world, and also to life in general. The study of nature is a large, if not the only, part of science. Although humans are part of nature, human activity is often understood as a separate category from other natural phenomena. The word nature is derived from the Latin word natura, or "essential qualities, innate disposition", and in ancient times, literally meant "birth". Natura is a Latin translation of the Greek word physis , which originally related to the intrinsic characteristics that plants, animals, and other features of the world develop of their own accord. The concept of nature as a whole, the physical universe, is one of several expansions of the original notion; it began with certain core applications of the word φύσις by pre-Socratic philosophers, and has steadily gained currency ever since. This usage continued during the advent of modern scientific method in the last several centuries.Within the various uses of the word today, "nature" often refers to geology and wildlife. Nature can refer to the general realm of living plants and animals, and in some cases to the processes associated with inanimate objects–the way that particular types of things exist and change of their own accord, such as the weather and geology of the Earth. It is often taken to mean the "natural environment" or wilderness–wild animals, rocks, forest, and in general those things that have not been substantially altered by human intervention, or which persist despite human intervention. For example, manufactured objects and human interaction generally are not considered part of nature, unless qualified as, for example, "human nature" or "the whole of nature". This more traditional concept of natural things which can still be found today implies a distinction between the natural and the artificial, with the artificial being understood as that which has been brought into being by a human consciousness or a human mind. Depending on the particular context, the term "natural" might also be distinguished from the unnatural or the supernatural. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 2092 Audioversity
What is Acadians? Explain Acadians, Define Acadians, Meaning of Acadians
 
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#Acadians #audioversity ~~~ Acadians ~~~ Title: What is Acadians? Explain Acadians, Define Acadians, Meaning of Acadians Created on: 2019-01-15 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acadians ------ Description: The Acadians are the descendants of French colonists who settled in Acadia during the 17th and 18th centuries, some of whom are also descended from the Indigenous peoples of the region. The colony was located in what is now Eastern Canada's Maritime provinces Canadians, Acadia was a distinctly separate colony of New France. It was geographically and administratively separate from the French colony of Canada . As a result, the Acadians and Québécois developed two distinct histories and cultures. They also developed a slightly different French language. France has one official language and to accomplish this they have an administration in charge of the language. Since the Acadians were separated from this council, their French language evolved independently, and Acadians retain several elements of 17th-century French that have been lost in France. The settlers whose descendants became Acadians came from many areas in France, but especially regions such as Île-de-France, Normandy, Brittany, Poitou and Aquitaine. Acadian family names have come from many areas in France. For example, the Maillets are from Paris; the LeBlancs of Normandy; the surname Melançon is from Brittany, and those with the surnames Bastarache and Basque came from Aquitaine. During the French and Indian War , British colonial officers suspected Acadians were aligned with France after finding some Acadians fighting alongside French troops at Fort Beausejour. Though most Acadians remained neutral during the French and Indian War, the British, together with New England legislators and militia, carried out the Great Expulsion of the Acadians during the 1755–1764 period. They deported approximately 11,500 Acadians from the maritime region. Approximately one-third perished from disease and drowning. The result was what one historian described as an ethnic cleansing of the Acadians from Maritime Canada. Other historians indicate that it was a deportation similar to other deportations of the time period. Most Acadians were deported to various American colonies, where many were forced into servitude, or marginal lifestyles. Some Acadians were sent to the Caribbean and some were deported to France. After being expelled to France, many Acadians were eventually recruited by the Spanish government to migrate to present day Louisiana state , where they developed what became known as Cajun culture. In time, some Acadians returned to the Maritime provinces of Canada, mainly to New Brunswick because they were barred by the British from resettling their lands and villages in what became Nova Scotia. Before the US Revolutionary War, the Crown settled New England Planters in former Acadian communities and farmland as well as Loyalists after the war . British policy was to assimilate Acadians with the local populations where they resettled.Acadians speak a dialect of French called Acadian French. Many of those in the Moncton area speak Chiac and English. The Louisiana Cajun descendants speak a dialect of American English called Cajun English, with many also speaking Cajun French, a close relative of the original dialect from Canada influenced by Spanish and West African languages. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 621 Audioversity
What is Zero-point energy?, Explain Zero-point energy, Define Zero-point energy
 
02:50
~~~ Zero-point energy ~~~ Title: What is Zero-point energy?, Explain Zero-point energy, Define Zero-point energy Created on: 2018-10-07 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-point_energy ------ Description: Zero-point energy is the difference between the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have, and the classical minimum energy of the system. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state due to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. As well as atoms and molecules, the empty space of the vacuum has these properties. According to quantum field theory, the universe can be thought of not as isolated particles but continuous fluctuating fields: matter fields, whose quanta are fermions , and force fields, whose quanta are bosons . All these fields have zero-point energy. These fluctuating zero-point fields lead to a kind of reintroduction of an aether in physics, since some systems can detect the existence of this energy. However this aether cannot be thought of as a physical medium if it is to be Lorentz invariant such that there is no contradiction with Einstein's theory of special relativity.Physics currently lacks a full theoretical model for understanding zero-point energy; in particular the discrepancy between theorized and observed vacuum energy is a source of major contention. Physicists Richard Feynman and John Wheeler calculated the zero-point radiation of the vacuum to be an order of magnitude greater than nuclear energy, with a single light bulb containing enough energy to boil all the world's oceans. Yet according to Einstein's theory of general relativity any such energy would gravitate and the experimental evidence from both the expansion of the universe, dark energy and the Casimir effect show any such energy to be exceptionally weak. A popular proposal that attempts to address this issue is to say that the fermion field has a negative zero-point energy while the boson field has positive zero-point energy and thus these energies somehow cancel each other out. This idea would be true if supersymmetry were an exact symmetry of nature. However, the LHC at CERN has so far found no evidence to support supersymmetry. Moreover, it is known that if supersymmetry is valid at all, it is at most a broken symmetry, only true at very high energies, and no one has been able to show a theory where zero-point cancellations occur in the low energy universe we observe today. This discrepancy is known as the cosmological constant problem and it is one of the greatest unsolved mysteries in physics. Many physicists believe that "the vacuum holds the key to a full understanding of nature". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 2385 Audioversity
What is Nitazoxanide? Explain Nitazoxanide, Define Nitazoxanide, Meaning of Nitazoxanide
 
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#Nitazoxanide #audioversity ~~~ Nitazoxanide ~~~ Title: What is Nitazoxanide? Explain Nitazoxanide, Define Nitazoxanide, Meaning of Nitazoxanide Created on: 2018-11-25 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitazoxanide ------ Description: Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthic, protozoal, and viral infections. It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths; emerging evidence suggests that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.Chemically, nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, a class of drugs which are synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivatives with antiparasitic and antiviral activity. Tizoxanide, an active metabolite of nitazoxanide in humans, is also an antiparasitic drug of the thiazolide class. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 689 Audioversity
What is Hashemites? Explain Hashemites, Define Hashemites, Meaning of Hashemites
 
01:05
~~~ Hashemites ~~~ Title: What is Hashemites? Explain Hashemites, Define Hashemites, Meaning of Hashemites Created on: 2018-08-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hashemites ------ Description: The Hashemites are the ruling royal family of Jordan. The House was also the royal family of Syria , Hejaz and Iraq . The family belongs to the Dhawu Awn, one of the branches of the Hasanid Sharifs of Mecca – also referred to as Hashemites – who ruled Mecca continuously from the 10th century until its conquest by the House of Saud in 1924. Their eponymous ancestor is Hashim ibn Abd Manaf, great-grandfather of the Islamic prophet, Muhammad. The current dynasty was founded by Sharif Hussein ibn Ali, who was appointed as Sharif and Emir of Mecca by Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1908, then in 1916 was proclaimed King of the Arab Lands after initiating the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire. His sons Abdullah and Faisal assumed the thrones of Jordan and Iraq in 1921. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 438 Audioversity
What is Indo-Scythians? Explain Indo-Scythians, Define Indo-Scythians, Meaning of Indo-Scythians
 
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~~~ Indo-Scythians ~~~ Title: What is Indo-Scythians? Explain Indo-Scythians, Define Indo-Scythians, Meaning of Indo-Scythians Created on: 2018-08-29 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-Scythians ------ Description: Indo-Scythians is a term used to refer to Scythians who migrated into parts of central, northern and western South Asia from the middle of the 2nd century BC to the 4th century AD. The first Saka king in South Asia was Maues/Moga who established Saka power in Gandhara, and Indus Valley. The Indo-Scythians extended their supremacy over north-western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms. The Indo-Scythians were apparently subjugated by the Kushan Empire, by either Kujula Kadphises or Kanishka. Yet the Saka continued to govern as satrapies, forming the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps. The power of the Saka rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Indo-Scythians were defeated by the Satavahana emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni. Indo-Scythian rule in the northwestern Indian subcontinent ceased when the last Western Satrap Rudrasimha III was defeated by the Gupta emperor Chandragupta II in 395 CE.The invasion of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the Indo-Scythian invasion, played a significant part in the history of the Indian subcontinent as well as nearby countries. In fact, the Indo-Scythian war is just one chapter in the events triggered by the nomadic flight of Central Asians from conflict with tribes such as the Xiongnu in the 2nd century AD, which had lasting effects on Bactria, Kabul, and the Indian subcontinent as well as far-off Rome in the west, and more nearby to the west in Parthia. Ancient Roman historians including Arrian and Claudius Ptolemy have mentioned that the ancient Sakas were nomadic people. However, Italo Ronca, in his detailed study of Ptolemy's chapter vi, states: "The land of the Sakai belongs to nomads, they have no towns but dwell in forests and caves" as spurious. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 523 Audioversity
What is High-net-worth individual?, Explain High-net-worth individual
 
01:33
~~~ High-net-worth individual ~~~ Title: What is High-net-worth individual?, Explain High-net-worth individual Created on: 2018-09-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-net-worth_individual ------ Description: High-net-worth individual is a term used by some segments of the financial services industry to designate persons whose investible assets exceed a given amount. Typically, these individuals are defined as holding financial assets with a value greater than US million.However, there are distinct classifications of HNWI and the exact dividing lines depend on how a bank wishes to segment its market. For example, an investor with less than US million but more than US,000 is considered to be "affluent", or perhaps even "Sub-HNWI". "Very-HNWI" can refer to someone with a net worth of at least US million.By 2007, the expansion of HNWI assets led to the creation of a super class of HNWIs, known as ultra-high-net-worth individuals , i.e. those with US million in liquid financial assets according to the Capgemini and Merrill Lynch World Wealth Report 2006 or with a disposable income of more than US million.At the end of 2017, there were estimated to be just over 15 million HNWIs in the world. The United States had the highest number of HNWIs of any country, while New York City had the most HNWIs among cities. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 431 Audioversity
What is Sulfadiazine? Explain Sulfadiazine, Define Sulfadiazine, Meaning of Sulfadiazine
 
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~~~ Sulfadiazine ~~~ Title: What is Sulfadiazine? Explain Sulfadiazine, Define Sulfadiazine, Meaning of Sulfadiazine Created on: 2018-10-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sulfadiazine ------ Description: Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic. Used together with pyrimethamine, it is the treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis. It is a second-line treatment for otitis media, prevention of rheumatic fever, chancroid, chlamydia, and infections by Haemophilus influenzae. It is taken by mouth.Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever, rash, depression, and pancreatitis. It should not be used in people who have severe liver problems, kidney problems, or porphyria. If used during pregnancy, it may increase the risk of kernicterus in the baby. While the company that makes it does not recommend use during breastfeeding, use is believed to be safe if the baby is otherwise healthy. It is in the sulfonamide class of medications.Sulfadiazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1941. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Sulfadiazine is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US.70 to 7.32 a month. In the United States, treatment costs more than per month. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 915 Audioversity
What is Alpha-2-Macroglobulin?, Explain Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, Define Alpha-2-Macroglobulin
 
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#Alpha-2-Macroglobulin #audioversity ~~~ Alpha-2-Macroglobulin ~~~ Title: What is Alpha-2-Macroglobulin?, Explain Alpha-2-Macroglobulin, Define Alpha-2-Macroglobulin Created on: 2019-01-14 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-2-Macroglobulin ------ Description: alpha-2-Macroglobulin is a large plasma protein found in the blood. It is mainly produced by the liver, and also locally synthesized by macrophages, fibroblasts, and adrenocortical cells. In humans it is encoded by the A2M gene. Alpha 2 macroglobulin acts as an antiprotease and is able to inactivate an enormous variety of proteinases. It functions as an inhibitor of fibrinolysis by inhibiting plasmin and kallikrein. It functions as an inhibitor of coagulation by inhibiting thrombin. Alpha-2-macroglobulin may act as a carrier protein because it also binds to numerous growth factors and cytokines, such as platelet-derived growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, TGF-β, insulin, and IL-1β. No specific deficiency with associated disease has been recognized, and no disease state is attributed to low concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin. The concentration of alpha-2-macroglobulin rises 10-fold or more in the nephrotic syndrome when other lower molecular weight proteins are lost in the urine. The loss of alpha-2-macroglobulin into urine is prevented by its large size. The net result is that alpha-2-macroglobulin reaches serum levels equal to or greater than those of albumin in the nephrotic syndrome, which has the effect of maintaining oncotic pressure. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 232 Audioversity
What is Mashup (web application hybrid)?, Explain Mashup (web application hybrid)
 
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~~~ Mashup (web application hybrid) ~~~ Title: What is Mashup (web application hybrid)?, Explain Mashup (web application hybrid) Created on: 2018-10-22 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mashup_(web_application_hybrid) ------ Description: A mashup , in web development, is a web page or web application that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface. For example, a user could combine the addresses and photographs of their library branches with a Google map to create a map mashup. The term implies easy, fast integration, frequently using open application programming interfaces and data sources to produce enriched results that were not necessarily the original reason for producing the raw source data. The term mashup originally comes from British - West Indies slang meaning to be intoxicated, or as a description for something or someone not functioning as intended. In recent English parlance it can refer to music, where people seamlessly combine audio from one song with the vocal track from another—thereby mashing them together to create something new. The main characteristics of a mashup are combination, visualization, and aggregation. It is important to make existing data more useful, for personal and professional use. To be able to permanently access the data of other services, mashups are generally client applications or hosted online. In the past years, more and more Web applications have published APIs that enable software developers to easily integrate data and functions the SOA way, instead of building them by themselves. Mashups can be considered to have an active role in the evolution of social software and Web 2.0. Mashup composition tools are usually simple enough to be used by end-users. They generally do not require programming skills and rather support visual wiring of GUI widgets, services and components together. Therefore, these tools contribute to a new vision of the Web, where users are able to contribute.The term "mashup" is not formally defined by any standard-setting body. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 779 Audioversity
What is Washington Naval Treaty?, Explain Washington Naval Treaty, Define Washington Naval Treaty
 
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#WashingtonNavalTreaty #audioversity ~~~ Washington Naval Treaty ~~~ Title: What is Washington Naval Treaty?, Explain Washington Naval Treaty, Define Washington Naval Treaty Created on: 2019-02-18 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington_Naval_Treaty ------ Description: The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, the Four-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major nations that had won World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction. It was negotiated at the Washington Naval Conference, held in Washington, D.C., from November 1921 to February 1922, and it was signed by the governments of the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Italy, and Japan. It limited the construction of battleships, battlecruisers and aircraft carriers by the signatories. The numbers of other categories of warships, including cruisers, destroyers and submarines, were not limited by the treaty, but those ships were limited to 10,000 tons displacement each. The treaty was concluded on February 6, 1922. Ratifications of that treaty were exchanged in Washington on August 17, 1923, and it was registered in the League of Nations Treaty Series on April 16, 1924.Later naval arms limitation conferences sought additional limitations of warship building. The terms of the Washington treaty were modified by the London Naval Treaty of 1930 and the Second London Naval Treaty of 1936. By the mid-1930s, Japan and Italy renounced the treaties, while Germany renounced the Treaty of Versailles which had limited its navy. Naval arms limitation became increasingly difficult for the other signatories. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 314 Audioversity
What is Instrumental Marxism?, Explain Instrumental Marxism, Define Instrumental Marxism
 
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#InstrumentalMarxism #audioversity ~~~ Instrumental Marxism ~~~ Title: What is Instrumental Marxism?, Explain Instrumental Marxism, Define Instrumental Marxism Created on: 2018-11-23 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrumental_Marxism ------ Description: Instrumental Marxism, or elite model, is a theory which reasons that policy makers in government and positions of power tend to "share a common business or class background, and that their decisions will reflect their business or class interests". It tends to view the state and law as ultimately an instrument or tool for individuals of the economically dominant class to use for their own purposes, particularly maintaining economic exploitation while winning ideological assent to their hegemony. This view is contrasted with structural Marxism, which views the class background of policymakers, etc. as purely incidental to the "bourgeois" nature of the modern state, which is seen instead as a result of the position of the state and law in the objective structure of capitalist society, and their objective function of reproducing the relations of production and private property, regardless of the class background of the individuals involved in the administration thereof. For example, whereas for instrumentalist Marxists the formal equality of contract law in capitalist societies is a kind of ideological shell or mystification used by the elite to conceal the real kernel of exploitation, for structural Marxists that formal legal equality is itself the real normative basis for properly capitalist exploitation, whether or not elites understand it as such: it allows labor-power to be traded at its real exchange-value , thus making regularity and rational allocation in labor markets possible.In the framework of the structure and agency debate in sociology, instrumental Marxism is an agent-centered view, emphasizing the decisions of policymakers, where the relevant agents are either individual elites, a section of the ruling class, or the class as a whole; whereas structural Marxism, as its name suggests, is a structural view, in which individuals are no more than the bearers of certain objective structural relations. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 224 Audioversity
What is Claim rights and liberty rights?, Explain Claim rights and liberty rights
 
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~~~ Claim rights and liberty rights ~~~ Title: What is Claim rights and liberty rights?, Explain Claim rights and liberty rights Created on: 2018-10-18 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Claim_rights_and_liberty_rights ------ Description: Some philosophers and political scientists make a distinction between claim rights and liberty rights. A claim right is a right which entails responsibilities, duties, or obligations on other parties regarding the right-holder. In contrast, a liberty right is a right which does not entail obligations on other parties, but rather only freedom or permission for the right-holder. The distinction between these two senses of "rights" originates in American jurist Wesley Newcomb Hohfeld's analysis thereof in his seminal work Fundamental Legal Conceptions, As Applied in Judicial Reasoning and Other Legal Essays. Liberty rights and claim rights are the inverse of one another: a person has a liberty right permitting him to do something only if there is no other person who has a claim right forbidding him from doing so; and likewise, if a person has a claim right against someone else, that other person's liberty is thus limited. This is because the deontic concepts of obligation and permission are De Morgan dual; a person is permitted to do all and only the things he is not obliged to refrain from, and obliged to do all and only the things he is not permitted to refrain from. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 289 Audioversity
What is Religion in Switzerland?, Explain Religion in Switzerland, Define Religion in Switzerland
 
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~~~ Religion in Switzerland ~~~ Title: What is Religion in Switzerland?, Explain Religion in Switzerland, Define Religion in Switzerland Created on: 2018-08-16 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religion_in_Switzerland ------ Description: Christianity is the predominant religion of Switzerland, its presence going back to the Roman era. Since the 16th century, Switzerland has been traditionally divided into Roman Catholic and Reformed confessions. However, adherence to Christian churches has declined considerably since the late 20th century, from close to 94% in 1980 to about 67% as of 2016. Furthermore notable is the significant difference in church adherence between Swiss citizens and foreign nationals in 2016.Switzerland as a federal state has no state religion, though most of the cantons recognize official churches , in all cases including the Roman Catholic Church and the Swiss Reformed Church. These churches, and in some cantons also the Old Catholic Church and Jewish congregations, are financed by official taxation of adherents.The Federal Statistical Office reported the religious demographics as of 2016 as follows : 66.9% Christian , 24.9% unaffiliated, 5.2% Muslim, 0.3% Jewish, 1.4% other religions. . ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 399 Audioversity
What is Communitarianism?, Explain Communitarianism, Define Communitarianism
 
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~~~ Communitarianism ~~~ Title: What is Communitarianism?, Explain Communitarianism, Define Communitarianism Created on: 2018-08-31 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communitarianism ------ Description: Communitarianism is a philosophy that emphasizes the connection between the individual and the community. Its overriding philosophy is based upon the belief that a person's social identity and personality are largely molded by community relationships, with a smaller degree of development being placed on individualism. Although the community might be a family, communitarianism usually is understood, in the wider, philosophical sense, as a collection of interactions, among a community of people in a given place , or among a community who share an interest or who share a history. Communitarianism usually opposes extreme individualism and disagrees with extreme laissez faire policies that neglect the stability of the overall community. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1595 Audioversity
What is Prolactin? Explain Prolactin, Define Prolactin, Meaning of Prolactin
 
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~~~ Prolactin ~~~ Title: What is Prolactin? Explain Prolactin, Define Prolactin, Meaning of Prolactin Created on: 2018-10-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prolactin ------ Description: Prolactin , also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk. It is influential in over 300 separate processes in various vertebrates, including humans. Prolactin is secreted from the pituitary gland in response to eating, mating, estrogen treatment, ovulation and nursing. Prolactin is secreted in pulses in between these events. Prolactin plays an essential role in metabolism, regulation of the immune system and pancreatic development. Discovered in non-human animals around 1930 by Oscar Riddle and confirmed in humans in 1970 by Henry Friesen prolactin is a peptide hormone, encoded by the PRL gene.In mammals, prolactin is associated with milk production; in fish it is thought to be related to the control of water and salt balance. Prolactin also acts in a cytokine-like manner and as an important regulator of the immune system. It has important cell cycle-related functions as a growth-, differentiating- and anti-apoptotic factor. As a growth factor, binding to cytokine-like receptors, it influences hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. The hormone acts in endocrine, autocrine and paracrine manner through the prolactin receptor and a large number of cytokine receptors.Pituitary prolactin secretion is regulated by endocrine neurons in the hypothalamus. The most important of these are the neurosecretory tuberoinfundibulum neurons of the arcuate nucleus that secrete dopamine to act on the D2 receptors of lactotrophs, causing inhibition of prolactin secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing factor has a stimulatory effect on prolactin release, however prolactin is the only adenohypophyseal hormone whose principal control is inhibitory. Several variants and forms are known per species. Many fish have variants prolactin A and prolactin B. Most vertebrates including humans also have the closely related somatolactin. In humans, three smaller and several larger variants exist. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1230 Audioversity
What is George Grenville?, Explain George Grenville, Define George Grenville
 
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~~~ George Grenville ~~~ Title: What is George Grenville?, Explain George Grenville, Define George Grenville Created on: 2018-08-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Grenville ------ Description: George Grenville was a British Whig statesman who rose to the position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. Grenville was born into an influential political family and first entered Parliament in 1741 as an MP for Buckingham. He emerged as one of Cobham's Cubs, a group of young members of Parliament associated with Lord Cobham. In 1754 Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, and Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister. His government tried to bring public spending under control and pursued an assertive foreign policy. His best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which instigated widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was later repealed. Grenville had increasingly strained relations with his colleagues and the King and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham. For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 290 Audioversity
What is Chamba people? Explain Chamba people, Define Chamba people, Meaning of Chamba people
 
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~~~ Chamba people ~~~ Title: What is Chamba people? Explain Chamba people, Define Chamba people, Meaning of Chamba people Created on: 2018-09-02 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chamba_people ------ Description: The Chamba people, also known as Samba, Tchamba, Tsamba, Daka and Chamba-Ndagan, are an African ethnic group found in the Gongola State of east-central Nigeria and neighboring parts of north Cameroon. They speak two distantly related languages: Chamba Leko, of the Leko–Nimbari languages, and Chamba Daka, of the Dakoid languages, both of which are a Niger-Congo language.Boyd says that the “Chamba Leko speakers are restricted to the easternmost part of the central area, for the most part on the Cameroon part of the modern border. The remainder of the Chamba are Daka-speaking”. The Chamba speakers still speak various other dialects that are different from place to place. The central area is where the Chamba Daka live. That area is found in North east of Nigeria on the Cameroon border in Adamawa State.The original colonial power who annexed the Chambaland were the Germans, but when Germany lost the First World War, this territory in Africa was divided by the League of Nations between British and France. “Where the majority of the Chamba live, straddles the present border between Nigeria and Cameroon”.The Chamba people have their own particular religious beliefs known as the Chamba religion. The Traditional Religion of the Chamba is premised on a creator solar God and ancestor spirits who live with this creator. The sun god does not interact with living beings, but the ancestor spirits do. The dead are believed to continue living, but they live below the ground, follow the same style and sophistication as humans, but they are believed to be wiser and with supernatural power. Special people among the Chamba are believed to be able to interact with these ancestral spirits and they are revered by the Chamba people.The Chamba people were one of the targets of Fulani jihads in the 18th and 19th century. They were enslaved, and many migrated south into the mountains. They retaliated becoming raiding bands who attacked slave and trading caravans. A minority, or about 15%, of the Chamba people adhere to Islam.The Chamba traditionally live in grassland area, farming cereal staples and cash crops such as cocoa and coffee. They are skilled artists known for their pottery, metal work and sculpture.The Chamba people are a significant ethnic groups in the north eastern Nigeria. The closest chamba neighbours are the Mumuye, the Fulani and the Jukun and Kutep people. In Cameroon, the successors of Leko and chamba speakers are divided into several states: Bali Nyonga, Bali Kumbat, Bali-Gham, Bali-Gangsin, and Bali-Gashu. The Basari people of Togo and Ghana also go by the name Chamba, but they are ethnically distinct. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 309 Audioversity
What is Rockefeller Republican?, Explain Rockefeller Republican, Define Rockefeller Republican
 
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~~~ Rockefeller Republican ~~~ Title: What is Rockefeller Republican?, Explain Rockefeller Republican, Define Rockefeller Republican Created on: 2018-10-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rockefeller_Republican ------ Description: The Rockefeller Republicans, also called Moderate or Liberal Republicans, were members of the Republican Party in the 1930s–1970s who held moderate to liberal views on domestic issues, similar to those of Nelson Rockefeller, Governor of New York and Vice President of the United States . Rockefeller Republicanism has been described as the last phase of the "Eastern Establishment" of the GOP, which had been led by New York governor Thomas E. Dewey. The group's powerful role in the GOP came under heavy attack in 1964 and it lost most of its influence. At a discouraging point in the 1964 primary campaign against Barry Goldwater in California, political operative Stuart Spencer called on Rockefeller to "summon that fabled nexus of money, influence, and condescension known as the Eastern Establishment. 'You are looking at it, buddy,' Rockefeller told Spencer. 'I am all that is left.'"Michael Lind contends that the ascendancy of the more conservative fusionist-wing of the Republican Party, beginning in the 1960s with Goldwater and culminating in the Reagan revolution in 1980, prevented the establishment of a Disraelian one-nation conservatism in the United States. In its current usage, the term refers to " member of the Republican Party holding views likened to those of Nelson Rockefeller; a moderate or liberal Republican". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 159 Audioversity
What is Edward Burnett Tylor?, Explain Edward Burnett Tylor, Define Edward Burnett Tylor
 
01:15
~~~ Edward Burnett Tylor ~~~ Title: What is Edward Burnett Tylor?, Explain Edward Burnett Tylor, Define Edward Burnett Tylor Created on: 2018-09-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Burnett_Tylor ------ Description: Sir Edward Burnett Tylor was an English anthropologist, the founder of cultural anthropology.Tylor's ideas typify 19th-century cultural evolutionism. In his works Primitive Culture and Anthropology , he defined the context of the scientific study of anthropology, based on the evolutionary theories of Charles Lyell. He believed that there was a functional basis for the development of society and religion, which he determined was universal. Tylor maintained that all societies passed through three basic stages of development: from savagery, through barbarism to civilization. Tylor is a founding figure of the science of social anthropology, and his scholarly works helped to build the discipline of anthropology in the nineteenth century. He believed that "research into the history and prehistory of man... could be used as a basis for the reform of British society."Tylor reintroduced the term animism into common use. He regarded animism as the first phase of development of religions. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 233 Audioversity
What is Bulgarian Turks? Explain Bulgarian Turks, Define Bulgarian Turks, Meaning of Bulgarian Turks
 
01:50
~~~ Bulgarian Turks ~~~ Title: What is Bulgarian Turks? Explain Bulgarian Turks, Define Bulgarian Turks, Meaning of Bulgarian Turks Created on: 2018-09-15 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarian_Turks ------ Description: Bulgarian Turks are a Turkish ethnic group from Bulgaria. As of 2011 there are 588,318 Bulgarians of Turkish descent, roughly 8.8% of the population, making them the country's largest ethnic minority. They primarily live in the southern province of Kardzhali and the northeastern provinces of Shumen, Silistra, Razgrad and Targovishte. There is also a diaspora outside Bulgaria in countries such as Turkey, Austria, Netherlands, and Sweden, the most significant of which are the Bulgarian Turks in Turkey. Bulgarian Turks are the descendants of Turkish settlers who entered the region after the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, as well as Bulgarian converts to Islam who became Turkified during the centuries of Ottoman rule. However, it has also been suggested that some Turks living today in Bulgaria may be direct ethnic descendants of earlier medieval Pecheneg, Oğuz, and Cuman Turkic tribes. According to local tradition, following a resettlement policy Karamanid Turks were settled mainly in the Kardzhali area by the sultans Mehmed the Conqueror, Selim and Mahmud II. The Turkish community became an ethnic minority when the Principality of Bulgaria was established after the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. This community is of Turkish ethnic consciousness and differs from the majority Bulgarian ethnicity and the rest of the Bulgarian nation by its own language, religion, culture, customs, and traditions. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 411 Audioversity
What is Small business? Explain Small business, Define Small business, Meaning of Small business
 
02:07
~~~ Small business ~~~ Title: What is Small business? Explain Small business, Define Small business, Meaning of Small business Created on: 2018-10-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Small_business ------ Description: Small businesses are privately owned corporations, partnerships, or sole proprietorships that have fewer employees and/or less annual revenue than a regular-sized business or corporation. Businesses are defined as "small" in terms of being able to apply for government support and qualify for preferential tax policy varies depending on the country and industry. Small businesses range from fifteen employees under the Australian Fair Work Act 2009, fifty employees according to the definition used by the European Union, and fewer than five thousand employees, to qualify for many U.S. Small Business Administration programs. While small businesses can also be classified according to other methods, such as annual revenues, shipments, sales, assets, or by annual gross or net revenue or net profits, the number of employees is one of the most widely used measures. Small businesses in many countries include service or retail operations such as convenience stores, small grocery stores, bakeries or delicatessens, hairdressers or tradespeople , restaurants, guest houses, photographers, very small-scale manufacturing, and Internet-related businesses such as web design and computer programming. Some professionals operate as small businesses, such as lawyers, accountants, dentists and medical doctors . Small businesses vary a great deal in terms of size, revenues and regulatory authorization, both within a country and from country to country. Some small businesses, such as a home accounting business, may only require a business license. On the other hand, other small businesses, such as day cares, retirement homes and restaurants serving liquor are more heavily regulated, and may require inspection and certification from various government authorities. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 298 Audioversity
What is Cooch Behar State?, Explain Cooch Behar State, Define Cooch Behar State
 
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~~~ Cooch Behar State ~~~ Title: What is Cooch Behar State?, Explain Cooch Behar State, Define Cooch Behar State Created on: 2018-09-05 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cooch_Behar_State ------ Description: Cooch Behar, also known as Koch Bihar, was a princely state ruled by Rajbanshi clans during the British Raj. The state was placed under the Bengal States Agency, part of the Eastern States Agency of the Bengal Presidency. It is located south of the Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, in present-day West Bengal. Cooch Behar State was formed when the Kamata Kingdom under the Koch dynasty split following the death of Nara Narayan in 1586. The eastern portion, Koch Hajo, was soon absorbed by Ahom. The western portion, Koch Bihar, formed a separate unit that came under direct challenge by the Mughal Empire. After weathering the Mughal threat, a new foe emerged in the form of an expansionist Bhutanese kingdom. After a series of wars with the Bhutanese and Tibetans, the Northern threat was pushed back but not before a Bhutanese regent was installed in the royal court. The Koch Bihar court decided to invite British intervention. This came in the form of military assistance that -acting in concert with Koch Bihar forces- ended the Northern challenge once and for all. However the British East India company sought guarantees whereby the independence of Koch Bihar was limited by treaties. When the British colonial rule was finally terminated in India, the Koch Bihar state immediately acceded to and merged with India in 1949 and became a part of West Bengal. The district, Cooch Behar District, is named after this erstwhile kingdom. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 309 Audioversity
What is Polygon mesh? Explain Polygon mesh, Define Polygon mesh, Meaning of Polygon mesh
 
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~~~ Polygon mesh ~~~ Title: What is Polygon mesh? Explain Polygon mesh, Define Polygon mesh, Meaning of Polygon mesh Created on: 2018-08-26 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polygon_mesh ------ Description: A polygon mesh is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. The faces usually consist of triangles , quadrilaterals, or other simple convex polygons, since this simplifies rendering, but may also be composed of more general concave polygons, or polygons with holes. The study of polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and geometric modeling. Different representations of polygon meshes are used for different applications and goals. The variety of operations performed on meshes may include Boolean logic, smoothing, simplification, and many others. Volumetric meshes are distinct from polygon meshes in that they explicitly represent both the surface and volume of a structure, while polygon meshes only explicitly represent the surface . As polygonal meshes are extensively used in computer graphics, algorithms also exist for ray tracing, collision detection, and rigid-body dynamics of polygon meshes. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 988 Audioversity
What is Xipe Totec? Explain Xipe Totec, Define Xipe Totec, Meaning of Xipe Totec
 
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#XipeTotec #audioversity ~~~ Xipe Totec ~~~ Title: What is Xipe Totec? Explain Xipe Totec, Define Xipe Totec, Meaning of Xipe Totec Created on: 2018-12-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xipe_Totec ------ Description: In Aztec mythology and religion, Xipe Totec or Xipetotec was a life-death-rebirth deity, god of agriculture, vegetation, the east, disease, spring, goldsmiths, silversmiths, liberation and the seasons. Xipe Totec was also known by various other names, including Tlatlauhca , Tlatlauhqui Tezcatlipoca and Youalahuan . The Tlaxcaltecs and the Huexotzincas worshipped a version of the deity under the name of Camaxtli, and the god has been identified with Yopi, a Zapotec god represented on Classic Period urns. The female equivalent of Xipe Totec was the goddess Xilonen-Chicomecoatl. According to Bernardino de Sahagún, Xipe Totec has a strong relation to diseases such as smallpox, blisters and eye sickness and if someone suffered from these diseases offerings were made to him. Xipe Totec connected agricultural renewal with warfare. He flayed himself to give food to humanity, symbolic of the way maize seeds lose their outer layer before germination and of snakes shedding their skin. Without his skin, he was depicted as a golden god. Xipe Totec was believed by the Aztecs to be the god that invented war. His insignia included the pointed cap and rattle staff, which was the war attire for the Mexica emperor. He had a temple called Yopico within the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Xipe Totec is associated with pimples, inflammation and eye diseases, and possibly plague.This deity is of uncertain origin. Xipe Totec was widely worshipped in central Mexico at the time of the Spanish Conquest, and was known throughout most of Mesoamerica. Representations of the god have been found as far away as Mayapan in the Yucatán Peninsula. The worship of Xipe Totec was common along the Gulf Coast during the Early Postclassic. The deity probably became an important Aztec god as a result of the Aztec conquest of the Gulf Coast in the middle of the fifteenth century. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 163 Audioversity
What is Suresh? Explain Suresh, Define Suresh, Meaning of Suresh
 
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#Suresh #audioversity ~~~ Suresh ~~~ Title: What is Suresh? Explain Suresh, Define Suresh, Meaning of Suresh Created on: 2018-11-16 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suresh ------ Description: Suresh is an Indian masculine given name originating in the Sanskrit word sureśa . Its meaning is "Ruler of Gods" and it has been used an epithet for the Hindu gods Indra, Bhrama, Vishnu and Shiva.People named Suresh include: Suresh , Indian Tamil-Telugu film actor Suresh Balaje, Indian film producer Suresh Bharadwaj, Indian politician Suresh , Tamil film director J. Suresh, Tamil film director Suresh Gopi , Indian Malayalam film actor Suresh Heblikar, Indian Kannada film actor Suresh Joachim, Tamil Canadian film actor, producer and multiple Guinness World Record holder Suresh Joshi, Indian poet, writer and literary critic Suresh Krishna, Indian Malayali film actor Suresh Krissna, Indian Tamil film director Suresh Kumar, American economist and businessman, Director-General of the U.S. Foreign Commercial Service Suresh Oberoi, Indian Hindi movie actor Suresh Raina, Indian cricketer Suresh Premachandran, Sri Lankan Tamil politician and leader of the Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front Suresh Venkatasubramanian, Indian-American computer scientist Daggubati Suresh Babu, Indian Telugu film producer Subra Suresh, Engineer and scientist, president of Nanyang Technological University ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1400 Audioversity
What is Prostitution? Explain Prostitution, Define Prostitution, Meaning of Prostitution
 
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#Prostitution #audioversity ~~~ Prostitution ~~~ Title: What is Prostitution? Explain Prostitution, Define Prostitution, Meaning of Prostitution Created on: 2018-12-09 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prostitution ------ Description: Prostitution is the business or practice of engaging in sexual activity in exchange for payment. Prostitution is sometimes described as sexual services, commercial sex or, colloquially, hooking. It is sometimes referred to euphemistically as "the world's oldest profession" in the English-speaking world. A person who works in this field is called a prostitute, and is a type of sex worker. Prostitution occurs in a variety of forms, and its legal status varies from country to country , ranging from being permissible but unregulated, to an enforced or unenforced crime, or a regulated profession. It is one branch of the sex industry, along with pornography, stripping, and erotic dancing. Brothels are establishments specifically dedicated to prostitution. In escort prostitution, the act may take place at the client's residence or hotel room , or at the escort's residence or a hotel room rented for the occasion by the escort . Another form is street prostitution. Although the majority of prostitutes are female and have male clients, a prostitute can be, and have clients of, any gender or sexual orientation. There are about 42 million prostitutes in the world, living all over the world . Estimates place the annual revenue generated by prostitution worldwide to be over billion.Some view prostitution as a form of exploitation of or violence against women, and children, that helps to create a supply of victims for human trafficking. Some critics of prostitution as an institution are supporters of the Swedish approach, which decriminalizes the act of selling sex, but makes the purchase of sex illegal. This approach has also been adopted by Canada, Iceland, the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland, Norway, and France. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1999 Audioversity
What is St. Xavier's College, Mumbai?, Explain St. Xavier's College, Mumbai
 
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#St.Xavier'sCollege,Mumbai #audioversity ~~~ St. Xavier's College, Mumbai ~~~ Title: What is St. Xavier's College, Mumbai?, Explain St. Xavier's College, Mumbai Created on: 2018-12-06 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/St._Xavier%27s_College,_Mumbai ------ Description: St. Xavier's College, Mumbai, is a college affiliated with the University of Mumbai offering undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in Arts, Science, Commerce and Management. Xavier's was the first college to be granted autonomy by the University of Mumbai in 2010. In 2006, St. Xavier's was awarded 'A+' grade by National Assessment and Accreditation Council .The college is named after Francis Xavier, the 16th-century Spanish Jesuit saint. Its campus in South Mumbai is built in the Indo-Gothic style of architecture, and recognized as a heritage structure. Founded by German Jesuits in 1869, Xavier's developed rapidly from 1884 to 1914. The imprisonment of German Jesuit priests during the First World War led to a dislocation of the administration, which was mitigated by the appointment of other European Jesuits. While it began as an arts college, by the 1920s science departments were established. The college was greatly expanded in the 1930s. The college is run by Indian Jesuits, with a distinct focus on affirmative action for minority students. It offers undergraduate and post-graduate courses in Arts, Science, Business, Commerce or Public Policy. It has spawned several research institutions within its campus including the Blatter Herbarium, and is known for its inter-collegiate youth festival 'Malhar'. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 2881 Audioversity
What is Tribunal? Explain Tribunal, Define Tribunal, Meaning of Tribunal
 
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#Tribunal #audioversity ~~~ Tribunal ~~~ Title: What is Tribunal? Explain Tribunal, Define Tribunal, Meaning of Tribunal Created on: 2018-12-11 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribunal ------ Description: A tribunal, generally, is any person or institution with authority to judge, adjudicate on, or determine claims or disputes—whether or not it is called a tribunal in its title. For example, an advocate who appears before a court with a single judge could describe that judge as 'their tribunal'. Many governmental bodies that are titled 'tribunals' are so described to emphasize that they are not courts of normal jurisdiction. For example, the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda is a body specially constituted under international law; in Great Britain, employment tribunals are bodies set up to hear specific employment disputes. In many cases, the word tribunal implies a judicial body with a lesser degree of formality than a court, to which the normal rules of evidence and procedure may not apply, and whose presiding officers are frequently neither judges nor magistrates. Private judicial bodies are also often styled 'tribunals'. However, the word tribunal is not conclusive of a body's function–for example, in Great Britain, the Employment Appeal Tribunal is a superior court of record. The term is derived from the tribunes, magistrates of the Classical Roman Republic. "Tribunal" originally referred to the office of the tribunes, and the term is still sometimes used in this sense in historical writings. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 818 Audioversity
What is Doctor of Philosophy?, Explain Doctor of Philosophy, Define Doctor of Philosophy
 
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~~~ Doctor of Philosophy ~~~ Title: What is Doctor of Philosophy?, Explain Doctor of Philosophy, Define Doctor of Philosophy Created on: 2018-09-19 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Philosophy ------ Description: A Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. As an earned research degree, those studying for this qualification are usually not only required to demonstrate subject-matter expertise and mastery by examination, they are also often asked to make a new scholarly contribution to a particular area of knowledge through their own original research. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor or, in non-English speaking countries, variants such as "Dr. phil." with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Additionally, holders of this degree may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil" . However, they should never list both "Dr." and "Ph.D." with their name in reference to the same academic qualification, as this is considered redundant, possibly misleading, and in poor taste.The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, from entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates. During the studies that lead to the degree, the student is called a doctoral student or PhD student; a student who has completed all of their coursework and comprehensive examinations and is working on their thesis/dissertation is sometimes known as a doctoral candidate or PhD candidate . A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions, or may be granted a master's degree en route to the doctoral degree. Sometimes this status is also colloquially known as "Ph.D. ABD", meaning "All But Dissertation."A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of expert examiners appointed by the university. Universities sometimes award other types of doctorate besides the PhD, such as the Doctor of Musical Arts for music performers and the Doctor of Education for professional educators. In 2005 the European Universities Association defined the Salzburg Principles, ten basic principles for third-cycle degrees within the Bologna Process. These were followed in 2016 by the Florence Principles, seven basic principles for doctorates in the arts laid out by the European League of Institutes of the Arts, which have been endorsed by the European Association of Conservatoires, the International Association of Film and Television Schools, the International Association of Universities and Colleges of Art, Design and Media, and the Society for Artistic Research.In the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term "philosophy" does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in a broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is "love of wisdom". In most of Europe, all fields other than theology, law, and medicine were traditionally known as philosophy, and in Germany and elsewhere in Europe the basic faculty of liberal arts was known as the "faculty of philosophy". ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 767 Audioversity
What is Plant disease epidemiology?, Explain Plant disease epidemiology
 
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~~~ Plant disease epidemiology ~~~ Title: What is Plant disease epidemiology?, Explain Plant disease epidemiology Created on: 2018-10-13 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plant_disease_epidemiology ------ Description: Plant disease epidemiology is the study of disease in plant populations. Much like diseases of humans and other animals, plant diseases occur due to pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, oomycetes, nematodes, phytoplasmas, protozoa, and parasitic plants. Plant disease epidemiologists strive for an understanding of the cause and effects of disease and develop strategies to intervene in situations where crop losses may occur. Typically successful intervention will lead to a low enough level of disease to be acceptable, depending upon the value of the crop. Plant disease epidemiology is often looked at from a multi-disciplinary approach, requiring biological, statistical, agronomic and ecological perspectives. Biology is necessary for understanding the pathogen and its life cycle. It is also necessary for understanding the physiology of the crop and how the pathogen is adversely affecting it. Agronomic practices often influence disease incidence for better or for worse. Ecological influences are numerous. Native species of plants may serve as reservoirs for pathogens that cause disease in crops. Statistical models are often applied in order to summarize and describe the complexity of plant disease epidemiology, so that disease processes can be more readily understood. For example, comparisons between patterns of disease progress for different diseases, cultivars, management strategies, or environmental settings can help in determining how plant diseases may best be managed. Policy can be influential in the occurrence of diseases, through actions such as restrictions on imports from sources where a disease occurs. In 1963 J. E. van der Plank published "Plant Diseases: Epidemics and Control", a seminal work that created a theoretical framework for the study of the epidemiology of plant diseases. This book provides a theoretical framework based on experiments in many different host pathogen systems and moved the study of plant disease epidemiology forward rapidly, especially for fungal foliar pathogens. Using this framework we can now model and determine thresholds for epidemics that take place in a homogeneous environment such as a mono-cultural crop field. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 737 Audioversity
What is Ascomycota? Explain Ascomycota, Define Ascomycota, Meaning of Ascomycota
 
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#Ascomycota #audioversity ~~~ Ascomycota ~~~ Title: What is Ascomycota? Explain Ascomycota, Define Ascomycota, Meaning of Ascomycota Created on: 2018-11-17 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascomycota ------ Description: Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya. Its members are commonly known as the sac fungi or ascomycetes. It is the largest phylum of Fungi, with over 64,000 species. The defining feature of this fungal group is the "ascus" , a microscopic sexual structure in which nonmotile spores, called ascospores, are formed. However, some species of the Ascomycota are asexual, meaning that they do not have a sexual cycle and thus do not form asci or ascospores. Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences.The ascomycetes are a monophyletic group, i.e. it contains all descendants of one common ancestor. This group is of particular relevance to humans as sources for medicinally important compounds, such as antibiotics and for making bread, alcoholic beverages, and cheese, but also as pathogens of humans and plants. Familiar examples of sac fungi include morels, truffles, brewer's yeast and baker's yeast, dead man's fingers, and cup fungi. The fungal symbionts in the majority of lichens such as Cladonia belong to the Ascomycota. There are many plant-pathogenic ascomycetes, including apple scab, rice blast, the ergot fungi, black knot, and the powdery mildews. Several species of ascomycetes are biological model organisms in laboratory research. Most famously, Neurospora crassa, several species of yeasts, and Aspergillus species are used in many genetics and cell biology studies. Penicillium species on cheeses and those producing antibiotics for treating bacterial infectious diseases are examples of taxa that belong to the Ascomycota. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 1003 Audioversity
What is Differential diagnosis?, Explain Differential diagnosis, Define Differential diagnosis
 
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#Differentialdiagnosis #audioversity ~~~ Differential diagnosis ~~~ Title: What is Differential diagnosis?, Explain Differential diagnosis, Define Differential diagnosis Created on: 2018-12-13 Source Link: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_diagnosis ------ Description: In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features. Differential diagnostic procedures are used by physicians and other trained medical professionals to diagnose the specific disease in a patient, or, at least, to eliminate any imminently life-threatening conditions. Often, each individual option of a possible disease is called a differential diagnosis . More generally, a differential diagnostic procedure is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of a disease entity where multiple alternatives are possible. This method is essentially a process of elimination or at least a process of obtaining information that shrinks the "probabilities" of candidate conditions to negligible levels, by using evidence such as symptoms, patient history, and medical knowledge to adjust epistemic confidences in the mind of the diagnostician . Differential diagnosis can be regarded as implementing aspects of the hypothetico-deductive method, in the sense that the potential presence of candidate diseases or conditions can be viewed as hypotheses that physicians further determine as being true or false. Common abbreviations of the term "differential diagnosis" include DDx, ddx, DD, D/Dx, ΔΔ, or ΔΔ𝛘.A differential diagnosis is also commonly used within the field of psychiatry/psychology, where two different diagnoses can be attached to a patient who is exhibiting symptoms which could fit into either diagnosis. For example, a patient who has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder may also be given a differential diagnosis of borderline personality disorder, given the similarity in the symptoms of both conditions. Strategies used in preparing a differential diagnosis list vary with experience of the healthcare provider. While novice providers may work systemically to assess all possible explanations for a patients concerns, those with more experience often draw on clinical experience and pattern recognition to protect the patient from delays, risks, and cost of inefficient strategies or tests. Effective providers utilize an evidence-based approach, complementing their clinical experience with knowledge from clinical research. ------ To see your favorite topic here, fill out this request form: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLScU0dLbeWsc01IC0AaO8sgaSgxMFtvBL31c_pjnwEZUiq99Fw/viewform ------ Source: Wikipedia.org articles, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. Support: Donations can be made from https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Ways_to_Give to support Wikimedia Foundation and knowledge sharing.
Views: 213 Audioversity