From about 1500 BC to 1200 BC, the Mediterranean region played host to a complex cosmopolitan and globalized world-system. It may have been this very internationalism that contributed to the apocalyptic disaster that ended the Bronze Age. When the end came, the civilized and international world of the Mediterranean regions came to a dramatic halt in a vast area stretching from Greece and Italy in the west to Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia in the east. Large empires and small kingdoms collapsed rapidly. With their end came the world’s first recorded Dark Ages. It was not until centuries later that a new cultural renaissance emerged in Greece and the other affected areas, setting the stage for the evolution of Western society as we know it today. Professor Eric H. Cline of The George Washington University will explore why the Bronze Age came to an end and whether the collapse of those ancient civilizations might hold some warnings for our current society. Considered for a Pulitzer Prize for his recent book 1177 BC, Dr. Eric H. Cline is Professor of Classics and Anthropology and the current Director of the Capitol Archaeological Institute at The George Washington University. He is a National Geographic Explorer, a Fulbright scholar, an NEH Public Scholar, and an award-winning teacher and author. He has degrees in archaeology and ancient history from Dartmouth, Yale, and the University of Pennsylvania; in May 2015, he was awarded an honorary doctoral degree (honoris causa) from Muhlenberg College. Dr. Cline is an active field archaeologist with 30 seasons of excavation and survey experience. The views expressed in this video are those of the speaker and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Capital Area Skeptics.
Views: 2774252 NCASVideo
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Views: 27518 Element 3
Around 1,200 BC, an ancient Armageddon destroyed nearly every known civilization. What could have caused it? The theories are many, but most now include one mysterious and massively destructive factor — a force only the Egyptians survived to name: The Sea People. Who were these warriors and how could they take down the world’s greatest powers in a span of just 50 years? Scale the dizzying heights of Crete’s mountain fortress with archaeologist Krzysztof Nowicki as he searches for clues. Programs such as these try to cover their shallowness with terms as secrets revealed, mystery, clues, etc. But when the viewer has carefully considered the presentation after viewing it, it is clear that little more is known than previously. “The foreign countries (ie. Sea Peoples) made a conspiracy in their islands. All at once the lands were removed and scattered in the fray. No land could stand before their arms: from Hatti, Qode, Carchemish, Arzawa and Alashiya on, being cut off [ie. destroyed] at one time. A camp was set up in Amurru. They desolated its people, and its land was like that which has never come into being. They were coming forward toward Egypt, while the flame was prepared before them. Their confederation was the Peleset, Tjeker, Shekelesh, Denyen and Weshesh, lands united. They laid their hands upon the land as far as the circuit of the earth, their hearts confident and trusting: ‘Our plans will succeed!’ In a couple of generations, about 1200 BC, several bronze age civilizations in the eastern part of the Mediterranean apparently collapsed. We cannot be certain that there was any connection among these. There is all but no hard written record as to why, beyond a few cryptic Egyptian accounts and paintings. According to this DVD, an un-named “sea people” descended upon the local villages and drove the residents to higher ground. Who these invaders were (assuming they existed), where they came from or where they went is a matter of speculation. Without hard evidence archaeologists are able to claim about anything they want to, and who is to say them nay? It all may sound scholarly but it is flimsy guesswork. Tags: Ancient Armageddon, known civilization,The Sea People, warriors,Crete, archaeologist, Krzysztof Nowicki, Secrets of the Aegean Apocalypse,Apocalypse, Aegean, Aegean Apocalypse, History channel documentary, history channel secrets of the aegean apocalypse, secrets of the aegean apocalypse documentary
Views: 3190 History Channel
Age of Bronze is a brilliant mod for Rome 2, taking the player way back into ancient history, where Total War has never gone before. I really enjoyed this game, and really hope they expand it to the campaign as well! Don't forget to like and subscribe! Thanks guys!
Views: 631 SimonGames
History Documentary - Secrets of the Aegean Apocalypse
Views: 3681 Educational Documentary
5 mysterious uncontacted tribes that hid from the outside world, including video and photos of some who remain unknown to modern science. Dark5 explores the dark depths of the Amazon, an isolated island, a remote desert, and the dense jungle of Vietnam. Subscribe for new Dark5 ►► http://bit.ly/dark5 Watch More Dark5: http://dark5.tv Like Dark5 on Facebook ► http://bit.ly/Dark5FB Follow Dark5 on Twitter ► http://bit.ly/Dark5Tweets Brazil Tribe photos CC 2.0 by the Brazilian state of Acre.
Views: 9192277 Dark5
Thrand and Eldgrim test Fine Bronze age weapons by Neil Burridge to see if they are effective against steel and steel armor? They test the Naue II on car hood for penetration and attempt to cut a 19 gauge steel plate. They test the middle age bronze spear against car hood and 15th century breast plate for penetration. So sit back grab an ale, ouzo, wine or mead and enjoy this mind blowing extreme test of bronze age technology! Be sure and like us on Facebook https://www.facebook.com/Thrand Be sure to Subscribe to our Youtube channel at https://www.youtube.com/user/ThegnThrand?sub_confirmation=1 Help us keep channel going on Patreon http://www.patreon.com/Thrand
Views: 18480 ThegnThrand
Video Software we use: https://amzn.to/2KpdCQF Ad-free videos. You can support us by purchasing something through our Amazon-Url, thanks :) The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation of groups known to have attacked Ancient Egypt prior to the Bronze Age Collapse.Following the creation of the concept in the 19th century it became one of the most famous chapters of Egyptian history, given its connection with, in the words of Wilhelm Max Müller: "the most important questions of ethnography and the primitive history of classic nations".The various Sea Peoples have been proposed to have originated from either western Anatolia or from southern Europe.Although the archaeological inscriptions do not include reference to a migration, the Sea Peoples are conjectured to have sailed around the eastern Mediterranean and invaded Anatolia, Syria, Canaan, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age. ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- About the author(s): National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) License: Public domain ---Image-Copyright-and-Permission--- This channel is dedicated to make Wikipedia, one of the biggest knowledge databases in the world available to people with limited vision. Article available under a Creative Commons license Image source in video
Views: 1132 WikiWikiup
Department of Geology and Geoenvironment, November 12th 2016 Athens, Greece. Lecture for the masters degree program "Environmental, Disasters and Crises Management" of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens. http://edcm.edu.gr
Views: 7637 Emmanuel Andreadakis
How the Alps were formed and how the discovery of bronze began the first arms race in northern Europe, while in Crete, European civilisation grew peacefully from wealth generated by agriculture and trade. Asks if a volcano destroyed the Minoan civilisation.
Views: 35439 india cognito
In this video I explain the incidents surrounding the incursions of the Sea Peoples into Egypt during the New Kingdom period under the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses III
Views: 3019 HISTORY_DUDE
For more than three hundred years during the Late Bronze Age, from about 1500 BC until just after 1200 BC, the Mediterranean region played host to a complex international world in which Egyptians, Mycenaeans, Minoans, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Cypriots, Trojans, and Canaanites all interacted. They created a cosmopolitan world-system, with flourishing cities such as Mycenae, Hazor, Troy, Ugarit, Hattusa, Babylon, and Thebes, such as has only rarely been seen before the current day. It may have been this very internationalism that contributed to the apocalyptic disaster that ended the Bronze Age. When the end came just after 1200 BC, as it did after centuries of cultural and technological evolution, the civilized and international world of the Mediterranean regions came to a dramatic halt in a vast area stretching from Greece and Italy in the west to Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia in the east. Cities and towns, large empires and small kingdoms, that had taken centuries to evolve, all collapsed rapidly. With their end came the world’s first recorded Dark Ages. It was not until centuries later that a new cultural renaissance emerged in Greece and the other affected areas, setting the stage for the evolution of Western society as we know it today. Dr. Eric H. Cline is Professor of Classics and Anthropology, former Chair of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, and current Director of the Capitol Archaeological Institute at The George Washington University, in Washington DC. A Fulbright scholar, National Geographic Explorer, and NEH Public Scholar, Dr. Cline holds degrees in Classical Archaeology, Near Eastern Archaeology, and Ancient History, from Dartmouth, Yale, and the University of Pennsylvania. An active field archaeologist who is the former co-director at Megiddo (biblical Armageddon) and the current co-director at Tel Kabri, he has more than 30 seasons of excavation and survey experience in Israel, Egypt, Jordan, Cyprus, Greece, Crete, and the United States. Dr. Cline has written (authored, co-authored, or edited) a total of sixteen books, which have been published by prestigious presses including Princeton, Oxford, Cambridge, Michigan, and National Geographic. He is a three-time winner of the Biblical Archaeology Society's "Best Popular Book on Archaeology" award (2001, 2009, and 2011). He also received the 2014 "Best Popular Book" award from the American Schools of Oriental Research for his book 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed, which is an international best-seller and was also considered for a 2015 Pulitzer Prize. In addition, he has also authored or co-authored nearly 100 academic articles, which have been published in peer-reviewed journals, festschriften, and conference volumes. At GW, Dr. Cline has won both the Trachtenberg Prize for Teaching Excellence and the Trachtenberg Prize for Faculty Scholarship, the two highest honors at the University; he is the first faculty member to have won both awards. He has also won the Archaeological Institute of America’s “Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching” Award and been nominated three times for the CASE US Professor of the Year. He has also appeared in more than twenty television programs and documentaries, ranging from ABC (including Nightline and Good Morning America) to the BBC and the National Geographic, History, and Discovery Channels. For more information, please visit: http://pier.macmillan.yale.edu/summer-institute
Views: 46724 YaleUniversity
more at http://news.quickfound.net/intl/syria_news.html "Visits Damascus, known as the oldest city in the world." Population 300,000 in 1938, 1.7 million in 2009. Reupload of a previously uploaded film with improved video & sound. Public domain film from the Library of Congress Prelinger Archives, slightly cropped to remove uneven edges, with the aspect ratio corrected, and one-pass brightness-contrast-color correction & mild video noise reduction applied. The soundtrack was also processed with volume normalization, noise reduction, clipping reduction, and/or equalization (the resulting sound, though not perfect, is far less noisy than the original). http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Damascus Damascus (Arabic: دمشق Dimashq, Metropolitan Arabic: Dimisheʼ ), commonly known in Syria as ash-Sham (Arabic: الشام ash-Shām) and nicknamed as the City of Jasmine (Arabic: مدينة الياسمين Madīnat al-Yāsmīn), is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo. It borders Quneitra, Daraa and As-Suwayda to the south, Jordan to the east, Homs to the north, and Lebanon to the west. It is also the capital city of one of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major cultural and religious center of the Levant. The city has an estimated population of 1,711,000 (2009 est.). Located in southwestern Syria, Damascus is the center of a large metropolitan area of 2.6 million people (2004). Geographically embedded on the eastern foothills of the Anti-Lebanon mountain range 80 kilometres (50 mi) inland from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean on a plateau 680 metres (2,230 ft) above sea-level, Damascus experiences a semi-arid climate due to the rain shadow effect. The Barada River flows through Damascus. First settled in the second millennium BC, it was chosen as the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate from 661 to 750. After the victory of the Abbasid dynasty, the seat of Islamic power was moved to Baghdad. Damascus saw a political decline throughout the Abbasid era, only to regain significant importance in the Ayyubid and Mamluk periods. During Ottoman rule, the city decayed completely while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Today, it is the seat of the central government and all of the government ministries... Early settlement Carbon-14 dating at Tell Ramad, on the outskirts of Damascus, suggests that the site may have been occupied since the second half of the seventh millennium BC, possibly around 6300 BC. However, evidence of settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC exists, although no large-scale settlement was present within Damascus walls until the second millennium BC. Damascus was part of the ancient province of Amurru in the Hyksos Kingdom, from 1720 to 1570 BC. Some of the earliest Egyptian records are from the 1350 BC Amarna letters, when Damascus-(called Dimasqu) was ruled by king Biryawaza. The Damascus region, as well as the rest of Syria, became a battleground circa 1260 BC, between the Hittites from the north and the Egyptians from the south, ending with a signed treaty between Hattusili and Ramesses II where the former handed over control of the Damascus area to Ramesses II in 1259 BC. The arrival of the Sea Peoples, around 1200 BC, marked the end of the Bronze Age in the region and brought about new development of warfare... Damascus is not documented as an important city until the arrival of the Aramaeans, Semitic people from Mesopotamia, in the 11th century BC... By the 8th century BC, Damascus was practically engulfed by the Assyrians and entered a dark age... Damascus was conquered by Alexander the Great. After the death of Alexander in 323 BC, Damascus became the site of a struggle between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires... In 64 BC, the Roman general Pompey annexed the western part of Syria... Damascus became a metropolis by the beginning of the 2nd century and in 222 it was upgraded to a colonia by the Emperor Septimius Severus... After most of the Syrian countryside was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate during the reign of Caliph Umar, Damascus itself was conquered by the Muslim-Arab general Khalid ibn al-Walid in September--August 635 CE... With the arrival of the Seljuq Turks in the late 11th century, Damascus again became the capital of independent states... Ayyubid rule (and independence) came to an end with the Mongol invasion of Syria in 1260, and following the Mongol defeat at Ain Jalut in the same year, Damascus became a provincial capital of the Mamluk Empire, ruled from Egypt, following the Mongol withdrawal. The Black Death of 1348--1349 killed as much as half of the city's population...
Views: 5603 Jeff Quitney
Roman Art and Archaeology
Views: 399 koniec19
If you are like many people these days, you fawn over the latest episode of The Walking Dead, enjoy movies like the Hunger Games, or lost your mind during Mad Max Fury Road. We seem to think a lot about what the apocalypse for our society might be like. Well, what if the apocalypse already happened… say 3,200 years ago. Step Back is made possible by the generous contributions of viewers like you, consider helping at https://www.patreon.com/stepbackhistory You can also help by getting your hands on Step Back merchandise over at https://shop.spreadshirt.com/StepBack/ Read More: Dickinson, Oliver (2007). The Aegean from Bronze Age to Iron Age: Continuity and Change Between the Twelfth and Eighth Centuries BC: http://amzn.to/2aMcl7n Cline, Eric H. (2014). 1177 B.C.: The Year Civilization Collapsed: http://amzn.to/2aH222P Step Back is a history channel releasing videos biweekly that endeavors to go past the names, dates, and battles you might find elsewhere. It invites you to take a step back, consider the past and how it connects to today. We search for the quirky, unconventional, and just plain weird parts of our collective story. SUBSCRIBE and join us! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCxTdWpLJurbGlFMWOwXWG_A Help out the future of the channel by taking a 2 minute survey over at: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/survey Keep up to date with our e-mail updates: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/newsletter More stuff at: http://www.TristanJohnson.org/step-back Connect with Step Back: Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Stepbackchannel Twitter: https://twitter.com/TristanPEJ Sub-Reddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/stepback/ Music: Bent and Broken by Kevin MacLeod is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution licence (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) Source: http://incompetech.com/music/royalty-free/index.html?isrc=USUAN1200087 Artist: http://incompetech.com/ Photos: Michael Frey Przemyslaw Idzkiewicz Alexikoua Andrei nacu Miguel George Groutas Andrea Piroddi Alex Proimos Peripitus Minda Haas Kuhlmann Fernando Estel Deu Oxfam East Africa Krish Dulal Alexikoua -~-~~-~~~-~~-~- Please watch: "Ilhan Omar Isn't Antisemitic" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aCLpVHR0P2Y -~-~~-~~~-~~-~-
Views: 21266 Step Back History
The Bronze Age "calamity" was bigger than the fall of Rome. Historian Eric Cline asks, "Could civilization collapse again?" http://f4a.tv/1OLYBDY
Views: 1958 FORA.tv
padre Crespi Carlos Croci collection, 2016 year. Коллекция падре Креспи. 2016 год. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1tob2gG0R30 Phoenicians discovered America https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5fayf_TC1c -------- And about this collection , the whole collection was created in Bronze age, around 2000 B. C. -1200 B.C. IN one version Sea People (Minoans) and Canaans(Phoenicians) visited America in bronze age . They play role of bearded gods. In Padre Crespi collection - you can see satanic cult of worship to Horus(Apollo) and to Isis (another version to her sister Neythotep)... There also phoencians and egyptians signs and pictures ... Egypt conquered Phoenicia during the reign of Thutmose. Whole collection show phoenician symbols, signs (even part of semitic signs). Modern masons (illuminati, zionists) worship to Lucifero (Horus -Apollo Libyan, Descendant of Amon Ra). He is human hybrid, evil creature, liar and enslaver of humans (in last 4000 years) after rebellion of fallen. Mean of rebellion of Marduk (Amon Ra) and fallen "angels" humanoids Igigi against Anu, against Enlil, against Ninurta and Inanna and etc.
Views: 23896 vlad9vt
The Villa Council Presents 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed May 22, 2016 The Getty Villa, Malibu Noted historian and archaeologist Eric Cline discusses the themes of his Pulitzer Prize-nominated book "1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed" and takes a closer look at why Mediterranean societies of the Late Bronze Age—with their complex cosmopolitan and globalized world-systems—came to a dramatic halt. He considers the similarities and parallels of our contemporary civilization, making the chain of interconnected events more than simply a study of ancient history. Photo: Blink Films
Views: 14647 Getty Museum
In which John Green teaches you about the Bronze Age civilization in what we today call the middle east, and how the vast, interconnected civilization that encompassed Egypt, The Levant, and Mesopotamia came to an end. What's that you say? There was no such civilization? Your word against ours. John will argue that through a complex network of trade and alliances, there was a loosely confederated and relatively continuous civilization in the region. Why it all fell apart was a mystery. Was it the invasion of the Sea People? An earthquake storm? Or just a general collapse, to which complex systems are prone? We'll look into a few of these possibilities. As usual with Crash Course, we may not come up with a definitive answer, but it sure is a lot of fun to think about. My Channel https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCfz2_xv38l_AHqWahpUJxDg
Views: 53 Science & Tech
Fag is a slang word in the dictionary no offense to such
Views: 87 gloriana Franco
Here is a list of lost ancient cities that have kept their hidden secrets throughout history, but whos mysteries got unraveled when they got discovered by modern day archeologists. Check out these crazy ruins of Troy, Pompeii, Petra, Palenque and Angkor Wat! Subscribe For New Videos! http://goo.gl/UIzLeB Watch our "World's Most Dangerous And Beautiful Sinkholes!" video here: https://youtu.be/Cp5S6WWZsWc Watch our "Top AMAZING Facts About Planet Earth!" video here: https://youtu.be/2bo0p7ndMZY Watch our "Most MYSTERIOUS Ocean Facts!" video here: https://youtu.be/BzrlpgRVPQg 6. Troy The legend of the Trojan War is One of the most powerful stories from ancient Greek literature and forms the basis of Homer’s The Iliad. Most of us have also probably seen the movie. Ancient troy commanded a strategic point at the southern entrance to the Dardanelles, a narrow strait linking the Black Sea with the Aegean Sea. The approximate Location of Troy was mentioned in several works by ancient Greek and Latin authors but was lost for hundreds of years until in the 1800's when scholars Charles Maclaren and Frank Calvert were able to persuade German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann to Excavate a mysterious mound know as Hisarlik. Everyone else had ignored Maclaren and Calvert claiming that the legend of Troy was just a story based on myth, not history. Of course, Schliemann took full credit for the discovery once he began uncovering the ancient city. Life lessons guys, always trust your instinct and don't let other people take credit for your hard work. The actual site where the city of Troy was located has About 9 different layers of settlements, towns and cities that could have been the Troy led by King Priam whose son Paris, ran away with Helen, wife of Menelaus, King of Sparta. The first and oldest layer dates back to the Early Bronze Age (around 2000 BCE). Later versions of Troy were destroyed by fire, and others by earthquake and war. Then, it was abandoned and forgotten, until the legend became truth. 5. Pompeii When Pompeii was destroyed by Mount Vesuvius, the City was buried under layers of volcanic rock and ash—frozen in time—until its rediscovery and exploration in the 18th century. Pompeii had a population of between 10,000 to 20,000 people and was famous for its excellent farmland. One of the ironies of volcanoes is that They tend to lure people in because they produce very fertile soil. In the towns below it, most people would not have known that Vesuvius was a volcano or that a Bronze Age settlement in the area had already been annihilated almost 2,000 years before. Vesuvius is actually Inside the exploded skeleton of an older volcano. If you look at an aerial photograph, you can see the remaining ridge of a much larger volcano on the north side. Around 2,000 people were killed in Pompeii from a cloud of scorching gases and thousands of tons of rock and ash that rained down over the city. The powdery ash that buried everyone was so fine that You can even see people's eyelids preserved like a plaster cast. The Emperor Titus declared Pompeii an emergency zone and offered financial assistance for cleanup and recovery. But the buried towns were beyond salvaging. Eventually, Pompeii and Herculaneum were Taken off local maps and forgotten for hundreds of years. Within a few centuries, settlers had repopulated the empty terrain, unconcerned with what lay below. The African plate, on which most of the Mediterranean Sea rests, is actually diving beneath the European plate. Under pressure underground the gases stay dissolved. When the magma rises to the surface it compresses, causing volcanoes to explode. To this day, Vesuvius Remains one of the world’s most dangerous volcanoes; some 3.5 million Italians live in its shadow, and about 2 million tourists visit the ruins each year. Although monitoring devices are in place if there is a major eruption with little warning and the winds are blowing toward Naples there could be another major disaster. 4. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro The discovery of the Indus Valley civilization (aka the Harappan Civilization) in what is now Pakistan was first recorded in the 1800's by the British. The locals also knew about it before then but there was no widespread archaeological excavation until the 1920s. This mysterious culture emerged nearly 4,500 years ago and thrived for a thousand years, profiting from the highly fertile lands of the Indus River floodplain and trade with the civilizations of nearby Mesopotamia. It remains mysterious because Scholars have still not been able to decipher the language, and instead have to guess at their daily life based on the objects that have been found. Mohenjo-daro and Harappa were highly advanced cities of their time, with Remarkably sophisticated civil engineering and urban planning reaching their golden age between 2,600 to 1900 BCE. Harappa had a level of Architectural planning that was unparalleled in the ancient world.
Views: 1752325 Origins Explained
Subscribe here: https://www.youtube.com/MegalithomaniaUK. Although they had no written language, people living in Western Europe four thousand years ago seem to have left evidence of considerable mathematical and astronomical knowledge which challenges our modern thinking about their culture and cosmology, and their contribution to our contemporary world. Anthony Thorley is a retired psychiatrist who has been researching landscape energies,traditions and history for over thirty years. He is slowly writing a book about Masonic influences in the development of eighteenth-century Bath entitled, 'Sacred City, Secret City' and is currently pursuing a PhD on Landscape Zodiacs at University of Wales, Trinity St David, where he teaches sacred geography. With his wife, Celia Gunn, he runs pilgrimages which explore earth-sky correspondence and together with astrologer, John Wadsworth, he co-facilitates the workshop programme: 'The Alchemical Journey'. See http://www.earthskywalk.com and http://www.thealchemicaljourney.co.uk Filmed at the Eternal Knowledge Eternal Knowledge Festival April 27th -- 29th 2012, Suffolk, UK http://eternal-knowledge.co.uk Directed by Jonathan Adams http://www.pentos.tv Produced by Hugh Newman http://www.hughnewman.co.uk Get more amazing downloads here: http://www.megalithomania.co.uk/dvd.html
Views: 10476 MegalithomaniaUK
From new discoveries near the famous Petra city, to the oldest geoglyph ever found, these are 10 AMAZING Archaeological Discoveries ! Archaeologists working at a dig in Istanbul say they’ve unearthed nearly 700 small ceramic vials of ancient remedies that date back nearly 1,400 years! They believe some of the curatives were used as treatments for heart disease and depression among other afflictions. Other items were found at the dig, including medical tools, mortars, pestles and a big cooker … which leads experts to believe the location was a major center for drug production. The research team also found plants in a nearby field which could have served as the basis for many of the drugs. It’s believed to be the biggest-ever cache of ancient medicine ever discovered. The Plain of Jars -- Located in Laos, this megalithic archaeological landscape is scattered with thousands of stone vessels measuring around 1 to 3 meters … but researchers have yet to identify their original purpose. The jars are found in clusters, numbering from one to several hundred … and date back to the Iron Age. Human bone and teeth fragments found inside the vessels showed evidence of cremation. That evidence, along with bones and pottery fragments found nearby led to theories that the jars were connected to certain burial rites and practices. But nothing can be certain until the sites can be cleared of millions of unexploded bombs and landmines dropped on Laos during the Vietnam War. The Okunev (ah-keh-nev) were a group of people from the Bronze Age that lived in southern Siberia and were nomadic herders known for their artistic diversity. Archaeologists recently discovered the 4,500-year-old grave of a Okenuv (ah-keh-nev) ‘noblewoman’ (quote/unquote) in Siberia that was holding a small child. Scientists applied the title after also finding some 100 decorations at the burial site … including an incense burner, elaborate carvings, and animal teeth used in a necklace, among other items. Symbols on the incense burner match those found in strange rock carvings in the region. A Load of Bullwinkle? -- In 2011, a stone structure with the features of a moose was discovered by satellite imagery in the southern Ural (yer-ul) Mountains … and archaeologists were baffled by it. But now, the origins of this enormous moose geoglyph which stretches around 275 meters, may have come to light. Experts have located over 150 small tools near the structure, which were used for breaking stones, or digging … and the small size of the implements suggests that children from a lost civilization may have helped in constructing this artwork some 6,000 years ago … which would predate the famous Nazca Lines in Peru by thousands of years! As for why the huge animal was created … It’s still a mystery. But experts think the geoglyph was somehow linked to religious ceremonies The Phaistos (fies-tus) Disc -- This archaeological mystery was discovered in 1908 at Phaistos, a palace site of Minoan (mee-no-un) Crete. It’s thought to date back to the Middle Minoan (mee-no-un) Bronze Age, around the second millennium BC. The object is around 15 centimeters in diameter, and is covered on both sides with a series of symbols stamped into the surface. 241 tokens comprised of 45 distinct signs were pressed into a disc of soft clay, spiraling in a clockwise sequence toward the center of the disc. Archaeologists have made many attempts to decipher the script … but it’s still unknown whether these signs might represent an alphabet, or a logography representing words or phrases. Most experts accept the disc as authentic … and agree that until more examples of these signs are uncovered, attempts to decode it will likely fail. If you’d like a crack at the mystery code, the disc is currently on display at the archaeological museum of Heraklion (her-ak-lee-un). The ancient rock-cut city of Petra is Jordan’s most popular tourist attraction and has been inhabited since prehistoric times. Yet it wasn’t until recently that archaeologists made a huge discovery just 800 meters south of the city’s center … a giant, monumental platform that was essentially hiding in plain sight! The rectangular structure measures around 184 feet by 160 feet … about twice as wide as an Olympic swimming pool! A smaller building centered atop the interior platform and facing a huge staircase was also discovered. How was it found? Scientists used high resolution satellite imagery along with ground surveys and aerial drone photography to locate the structures. Although still unexcavated, the presence of surface pottery at the site dates from around the mid-second century BC … suggesting the monument has existed since then. What do you think it was used for? Subscribe to Epic Wildlife http://goo.gl/6rzs5u Let's Connect -- http://www.epicadamwildlife.com/ -- http://www.facebook.com/epicadamwildlife -- http://www.twitter.com/epicwildlife -- http://gplus.to/epicwildlife
Views: 122894 Epic Wildlife
This is the story of THE HITTITES, the most powerful people in the ancient Near and Middle East. Narrated by Academy Award WinnerJeremy Irons, THE HITTITES, brings the fascinating history of this mighty empire to life with expert interviews, stunning cinematography and visual effects, including a breathtaking recreation of the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite armies and those of Pharaoh Rameses II.
Views: 1115165 Ekip Film
7 STRANGEST Historical Mysteries From giant unexplained explosions to monuments 10,000-20,000 years old to the idea that Christopher Columbus may never have even existed, these are the 7 Strangest Historical Mysteries. Narration provided by JaM Advertising New Mexico www.tasteofjam.com A few millennia ago ancient Europeans were getting along just fine inventing the baguette and hunting unicorns to extinction, but sometime around 2500 BC a mysterious and unknown event occurred, one which was to change the genetic makeup of European people forever. The development of human civilization from hunter-gatherers to a more permanent existence in towns and cities is believed to have begun around 8000 BC, and the typical process went something like this – find a nice patch of land, build a few homes, raise some animals and crops, and then construct a temple or monument to the almighty God to thank him for providing you with such a delightful place to live. The Indus Valley people were a bronze-age civilisation whose population of five million people straddled the areas of modern day Pakistan, Afghanistan and India. They were a prosperous and self-sustaining society whose advanced cities even had their own sophisticated water and sewage draining systems, which is something Flint Michigan doesn’t even have today. But having first settled the area in 3000 BC, by 1700 BC the entire population of the Indus Valley had been wiped out. In July 1901 a 2000 year old Greek cargo ship was discovered at the bottom of the ocean just off the coast of the Greek Island Antikythera, and within its ruins was this, the Antikythera Mechanism. The Antikythera Mechanism was basically an ancient analogue computer made of bronze clockwork gears which the Greeks used to predict the positions of moons, stars and planets…and maybe also to look up some ancient Greek pornos when everyone had gone to bed. On the morning of June 30th 1908 a huge fireball was seen barrelling towards the Earth, causing an explosion in Eastern Siberia which obliterated more than 2000 square kilometres of forest and wildlife - yet nobody knows exactly what caused this devastating incident.
Views: 2939805 Strange Mysteries
Best Documentary 2016 The Most Mysterious History Events On Earth Ever Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system. Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos, Tiryns, Midea in the Peloponnese, Orchomenos, Thebes, Athens in Central Greece and Iolcos in Thessaly. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, to which the culture of this era owes its name. Mycenaean and Mycenaean-influenced settlements also appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant,Cyprus and Italy. The Mycenaean Greeks introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering, architecture and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean was essential for the Mycenaean economy. Their syllabic script, the Linear B, offers the first written records of the Greek language and their religion already included several deities that can also be found in the Olympic Pantheon. Mycenaean Greece was dominated by a warrior elite society and consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid hierarchical, political, social and economic systems. At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization (including the extensive use of iron). Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the “Sea Peoples”. Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been also suggested. The Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle The Bronze Age in mainland Greece is generally termed as the "Helladic period" by modern archaeologists, after Hellas, the Greek name for Greece. This period is divided into three subperiods: The Early Helladic (EH) period (c. 2900–2000 BC) was a time of prosperity with the use of metals and a growth in technology, economy and social organization. The Middle Helladic (MH) period (ca. 2000–1650 BC) faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type cist graves. Finally, the Late Helladic (LH) period (c. 1650–1050 BC) roughly coincides with Mycenaean Greece. The Late Helladic period is further divided into LHI and LHII, both of which coincide with the early period of Mycenaean Greece (c. 1650–1425 BC), and LHIII (c. 1425–1050 BC), the period of expansion, decline and collapse of the Mycenaean civilization. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean (c. 1050–1000 BC)
Views: 48 Best Documentary 2016
AFFILIATE LINK to "Egypt of the Pharaohs" by Alan Gardiner, an excellent and exhaustive look at Ancient Egypt: http://amzn.to/2hFnvRV Welcome back to Ave Imperator! Productions, this time we'll be looking at Bronze Age Egypt! Ever wonder how society even formed so long ago? Ever think about what it would take exactly to make a bronze age civilization spin? Well, if you haven't, now's your chance! In order to understand the time period, we'll take a look at what was important. Next video will be iron age Greece, so make sure to stay tuned! If you have any comments or concerns, feel free to leave them below. Remember: AVE IMPERATOR!
Views: 352 Ave Imperator! Productions
From a 2,000 year old mummy with perfect skin, to a 20,000 year old pyramid, Here are 10 Unusual archaeological finds! Subscribe to Epic Wildlife http://goo.gl/6rzs5u Let's Connect -- http://www.epicadamwildlife.com/ -- http://www.facebook.com/epicadamwildlife -- http://www.twitter.com/epicwildlife -- http://gplus.to/epicwildlife 5.Hand in Hand .A unique find was made at Lake Baikal (bie-KAHL) in Siberia in 2016 … A grave dating to the Bronze Age contained the skeleton of a man and a woman holding hands -- for the past 5,000 years! The man’s skeleton was complete … but rodents destroyed the upper portion of the female. Archaeologists noted that the skeletons were adorned with rings made of rare white jade … one such ring was placed over the eye socket of the man. Three rings made of jade were placed on the man’s chest … and a jade dagger was also found in the grave. The man was thought to be a dignitary … while the woman is believed to have been his wife, or concubine. Experts think the couple belonged to the Bronze Age Glazkov Culture … they lived around Lake Baikal (bie-KAHL), which is known as the world’s oldest and deepest lake. The spot in which the couple was discovered was considered sacred by the ancient people. 4.The Swedish Atlantis? Has Atlantis finally been discovered? A recent find had us wondering. Researchers have discovered the submerged remains of a Stone Age lagoon community off the coast of Sweden … thought to be some 9,000 years old! It’s thought that the lagoon environment sank as sea levels rose over the centuries. An ancient pick axe carved from deer antlers, along with several fish traps made from braided hazel rods were among the items discovered. The relics were found some 20 meters below the surface of the Hano Bay in the Baltic Sea. To get a better idea of the area's history, geologists drilled into the seabed and radiocarbon dated the core. They also produced bathymetric maps to illustrate depth variations. Experts say that 9,000 years ago, the lagoon environment was likely surrounded by a pine forest … and Mesolithic (mezza-lithic) humans lived there for parts of the year. 3.Mummy Dearest Did you know the world’s best preserved mummy is in China? The body of Xin Zhui (shin-zoo) is around 2,100 years old. She was known as the Lady of Dai (die) and lived during the Han Dynasty. Her body still has soft skin, all her own hair and eyelashes … and her limbs can still bend! Scientists also noted that all her internal organs remained intact. Her preservation is even more impressive considering experts believe she was suffering from clogged arteries, high blood pressure, diabetes, and had heart disease … Researchers think she died from that condition at the approximate age of 50. Workers found her tomb inside a hillside as they were attempting to locate an air raid shelter. Her body was found swaddled in over 20 layers of silk … then sealed within four coffins filled with charcoal, which were then sealed with clay -- which made it so watertight that bacteria couldn't enter. 2.20,000 Year-Old Pyramid Could the world’s oldest pyramid be located in Indonesia? A geologist says that a location in West Java is revered because it contains an ancient pyramid … which could be 20,000 years old. The location is Gunung Padang (gun-ung PAH-dang)… a Megalithic site discovered in 1914. The site is said to be largest of its kind in Southeast Asia, and is located south of Jakarta. The hillside exhibits chunks of volcanic rubble that indigenous people consider sacred. The geologist, Dr Danny Hilman, says the hillside actually covers a pyramid that may have been built for astronomical purposes, or for worship. He claims that ground-penetrating radar has detected man-made structures around 15 meters underground. Rock found some 4 meters underground has been dated up to 12,500 years old. Although many experts are skeptical about Dr Hilman’s theory, research is ongoing. Could a pyramid really be there? 1.Another Stonehenge? Did you know a Neolithic complex was discovered about 1.5 miles from Stonehenge? And this newly discovered complex is thought to have been built more than 5,600 years ago. It’s located in a village called Larkhill in Wiltshire … And consists of around 3,000 feet of ditches with a diameter measuring 656 feet. It’s considered the first major early Neolithic site discovered in the Stonehenge area in over 100 years. Archaeologists have recovered items including human remains, arrowheads, broken pottery and cattle bones. So far, about 300 feet of the ditches have been excavated. Findings thus far indicate the complex was a sacred area for rituals, in addition to being a burial ground. Researchers hope these new findings will help shed light on why -- and how -- Stonehenge was built.
Views: 113070 Epic Wildlife
Pasadena Christian Center Presents: Ancient Near East and Old Testament Crash Course, by Jesse Kisman. In Week 4 the week the reigns of King David and King Solomon are covered. Then the puzzle of the Late Bronze Age Collapse is put together, as the Hittie Empire, the Egyptian New Kingdom Period, and the Powers of Mesopotamia all fell around the same time.
Views: 40 Kristine Kisman
Presented by James Osborne, Assistant Professor of Anatolian Archaeology, Oriental Institute. The Syro-Anatolian City States: A Neglected Iron Age Culture The Iron Age kingdoms of the Syro-Anatolian culture were among the Near East's wealthiest and most important of the time. Yet today they are mostly ignored by all but specialists, overshadowed in the modern imagination by their contemporaries, the Neo-Assyrian Empire and biblical Israel. This lecture presents the many artistic and architectural accomplishments of this remarkable culture, claiming their place alongside the ancient Near East's most famous societies. Our lectures are free and available to the public thanks to the generous support of our members. To become a member, please visit: http://bit.ly/2AWGgF7
Views: 24749 Oriental Institute
Here are 10 rare and historical discoveries from a coin where only 12 actually exist to a golden crown found under someones' bed! Subscribe to American Eye http://goo.gl/GBphkv 5. Greek Warrior Helmet This mysterious finding dates back to 5th or 6th century BC and it’s not exactly the helmet itself that’s baffling archaeologists but where it was found and who wore it! This bronze Greek Phalanx helmet was found at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea but off the coast of Haifa, Israel! It was found by a Dutch dredging ship and it was handed off to the Israeli Antiquities Authorities for further examination. The helmet is in quite remarkable condition for something this old. Experts have two theories on why it was found near Israel. Some claim it was from a Greek mercenary who was paid to fight for the Egyptians. Others believe it was worn by a Greek soldier who was sent into battle against the Persians who ruled the area at the time. Greeks did have some influence in Israel but this helmet dates back a few centuries before that time. 4. Ancient Sea Travel Ancient Greeks might have not only had the power to time travel but also to travel the seas at a much earlier date in time then we once thought. Thanks to this discovery found on the island of Crete, archaeologists can prove that sea travel took place at least 130,000 years ago. The previous known time people were able to trave l by boat was around 60,000 BC. Stone age tools like these axes were found in ancient shelters. They’re very similar to the tools used by our ancient ancestors known as the Homo Erectus. Since the island of Crete has been separated from the mainland of Greece for quite some time now, this leads archaeologists to believe that the only way settlers were able to get here was by some type of boat. How advanced were these boats they had, and what other places were discovered that we might not know about? 3. Spartan Palace? You might be familiar with the ancient Spartans from the movie 300, where King Leonidas leads his small Spartan army into a gruesome battle but could archaeologists have found his palaces after all these years? Just a few miles south of the known location of Sparta near a small village, you can see where it was discovered. The building had around 10 rooms and was found filled with archaic inscription from the 17th to 16th centuries BC. They found a large variety of objects like 20 Bronze swords, and religious symbols. One of the cult like objects found at this possible palace, is this bull’s head cup that you see in this photo. If this is truly the palace of Spartan leader, we’d still be lucky to have some artifacts left over, since the palace was burnt to the ground in the 14th century BC. The Spartan civilization was one of the most important to live in Greece and it mysteriously disappeared around 1200 BC. 2. Ancient Greek Citadel This was declared as one of Jerusalem's greatest archaeological mysteries and it has left many people completely puzzled! The legendary citadel known as the Acra was finally found underneath a parking lot in the center of Jerusalem! This fort was built by Emperor Antiochus the fourth and is finally proof that the Greeks had some influence in the holy town of Jerusalem. The dig site now plunges 3 stories below the surface of the earth and archaeologists search frantically for ruins and artifacts. The fort was later destroyed by Romans and the land near the ruins became a residential area. These sling stones and bronze arrowheads were found at the dig site, close to the old city walls of Jerusalem. 1. Ancient Warrior Tomb US archaeologists claim to have made the most important discovery in Greece in 65 years. They came across a 7 foot tomb in 2015 that contain priceless relics from this remarkable civilization. The tomb contained the remains of a powerful ancient Greek warrior, whose tomb remained untouched for 3.5 thousand years. It’s almost like the Greek version of the tomb of King Tut since; the tomb was not grave robbed. The jewelry had a similar style to that of the Minoans, who flourished on the island of Crete. Here in this illustration, you see how the grave appeared before modern graverobbers got a hold of it. Priceless gold jewelry, as well as strings of pearls were discovered. It’s clear that this warrior was wealthy due to this ivory sword hilt that was found designed with what looks like a bull. What else might we uncover about this advanced, ancient civilisation?
Views: 1132830 American Eye
Best Documentary 2016 The Most Mysterious History Events On Earth Ever Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (c. 1600–1100 BC). It represents the first advanced civilization in mainland Greece, with its palatial states, urban organization, works of art and writing system. Among the centers of power that emerged, the most notable were those of Pylos, Tiryns, Midea in the Peloponnese, Orchomenos, Thebes, Athens in Central Greece and Iolcos in Thessaly. The most prominent site was Mycenae, in Argolid, to which the culture of this era owes its name. Mycenaean and Mycenaean-influenced settlements also appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant,Cyprus and Italy. The Mycenaean Greeks introduced several innovations in the fields of engineering, architecture and military infrastructure, while trade over vast areas of the Mediterranean was essential for the Mycenaean economy. Their syllabic script, the Linear B, offers the first written records of the Greek language and their religion already included several deities that can also be found in the Olympic Pantheon. Mycenaean Greece was dominated by a warrior elite society and consisted of a network of palace states that developed rigid hierarchical, political, social and economic systems. At the head of this society was the king, known as wanax. Mycenaean Greece perished with the collapse of Bronze Age culture in the eastern Mediterranean, to be followed by the so-called Greek Dark Ages, a recordless transitional period leading to Archaic Greece where significant shifts occurred from palace-centralized to de-centralized forms of socio-economic organization (including the extensive use of iron). Various theories have been proposed for the end of this civilization, among them the Dorian invasion or activities connected to the “Sea Peoples”. Additional theories such as natural disasters and climatic changes have been also suggested. The Mycenaean period became the historical setting of much ancient Greek literature and mythology, including the Trojan Epic Cycle The Bronze Age in mainland Greece is generally termed as the "Helladic period" by modern archaeologists, after Hellas, the Greek name for Greece. This period is divided into three subperiods: The Early Helladic (EH) period (c. 2900–2000 BC) was a time of prosperity with the use of metals and a growth in technology, economy and social organization. The Middle Helladic (MH) period (ca. 2000–1650 BC) faced a slower pace of development, as well as the evolution of megaron-type cist graves. Finally, the Late Helladic (LH) period (c. 1650–1050 BC) roughly coincides with Mycenaean Greece. The Late Helladic period is further divided into LHI and LHII, both of which coincide with the early period of Mycenaean Greece (c. 1650–1425 BC), and LHIII (c. 1425–1050 BC), the period of expansion, decline and collapse of the Mycenaean civilization. The transition period from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age in Greece is known as Sub-Mycenaean (c. 1050–1000 BC) Watch More Like: BBC Documentary,History Channel,National Geographic,Discovery,Full Documentary,Nova documentary,Asap Science,Best Documentary 2015,Documentaries,hd Documentary,Airlines,Dubai,China,India,Russia,United States,Amazing Documentary,Best Documentary 2016,Documentary (Tv Genre),Amazing documentary,prison,jail,crime,The World's Most Violent and notorious Prison On Earth,Amazing 2016,Earth (Planet),History,Place,Television (Invention),Cool,Best Documentary,World's Largest,World's Deepest,the,largest,india documentary,hottest,hot,nature documentary,nature,ever made,japan,China,India,Russia,United States,Amazing Documentary, documentary,wildlife,Best Documentary 2015,BBC Documentary,BBC,Discovery channel (TV Network),History,National Geographic Channel (TV Station),Full Documentary,Mysterious,Most,The Most, Documentaries,Airlines,Secret bunker, the secret Places,On Earth,Hatsoft,Documentary Hd,viral,creatures,scariest creatures,Canada,Mysterious,Secrets,best of 2015,new documentary,life documentary,top documentary,earth documentary,stoner documentary,best documentary 2016,Much More.. Please Subcribe Us For More Videos Like This: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuGE ... https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuGE ... https://twitter.com/hatsoft24x7 http://www.hatsofts.blogspot.in/ http://www.dailymotion.com/user/hatso ... https://www.facebook.com/hatsoft?ref=hl https://vimeo.com/hatsoft https://www.instagram.com/hatsoft . Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCYA7VdxWv95zkEwyH61D62g?sub_confirmation=1
Views: 10 Documentary Thomas
Eric Cline, Professor of Classics and Anthropology at George Washington University, discusses the factors that caused the Bronze Age to come to an end. Cline focuses on events of 1177 BC including earthquakes, drought, famine and rebellions and discusses their similarity to events occurring today. Explore the full archive of WPT's University Place lectures online at http://wpt.org/universityplace
Views: 1058 Wisconsin Public Television
Hittite Royal Guard infantry 850 B.C. The Hittites were a non-Semitic people from the mountains of Armenia who spread westwards and southwards from the end of the second millennium B.C. into Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine and further south coming into contact with the Egyptians by the mid-16th century B.C. Their knowledge of iron in weapon production gave them an advantage over their enemies, and they defeated the Egyptian in the famous battle of Kadesh 1287 B.C. The invasion of the Sea Peoples in the late 13th century however helped to spread the knowledge of iron making thereby nullifying their advantage an coupled with internal disputes led to the decline of the Hittite Empire. Slowly they were absorbed by the rising Assyrian Empire. A few petty kingdoms survived northern Syria until they were annexed by the Assyrian in the 8th century B.C. The warrior illustrated is based on the famous King's Great relief at Carchemish. The soldier is wearing a multi coloured tunic and a leather belt around his waist. On his feet he has calf length boots. He wears a bronze helmet with a crest presumably of horse hair. His only other protection is a shield. A spear is his only weapon.
Views: 30 Kim Hannibal
How did the ancient civilization of Sumer first develop the concept of the written word? It all began with simple warehouse tallies in the temples, but as the scribes sought more simple ways to record information, those tallies gradually evolved from pictograms into cuneiform text which could be used to convey complex, abstract, or even lyrical ideas. Support us on Patreon! http://bit.ly/EHPatreon --- (Episode details below) Grab your Extra Credits gear at the store! http://bit.ly/ExtraStore Subscribe for new episodes every Saturday! http://bit.ly/SubToEC Watch the beginning of the Early Christian Schisms! http://bit.ly/1TvNot1 Play games with us on Extra Play! http://bit.ly/WatchEXP Talk to us on Twitter (@ExtraCreditz): http://bit.ly/ECTweet Follow us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/ECFBPage Get our list of recommended games on Steam: http://bit.ly/ECCurator ____________ Sumer was the land of the first real cities, and those cities required complex administration. The temples which kept people together were not only religious places, but also warehouses which stored the community's collective wealth until it was needed to get through lean years. As the donations came in, scribes would count the items and draw pictures of them on clay tablets. The images quickly became abstract as the scribes needed to rush, and they also morphed to represent not just an image but the word itself - more specifically, the sound of the word, which meant that it could also be written to represent other words that sounded similar (homophones). Sumerian language often put words together to express new ideas, and the same concept applied to their writing. As people came to use this system more, the scribes began to write from left to right instead of top to bottom since they were less likely to mess up their clay tablets that way. Those who read the tablets didn't appreciate this change, so the scribes rotated the words 90 degrees allowing tablets to be rotated if the reader preferred - but this made the images even more abstract, until eventually the pictograms vanished entirely to be replaced by wedge-shaped stylus marks: cuneiform. Many of Sumer's neighbors adopted this invention and helped it spread throughout the region, though completely different writing systems developed independently in cultures situated in places like China and South America! ____________ ♪ Get the intro music here! http://bit.ly/1EQA5N7 *Music by Demetori: http://bit.ly/1AaJG4H ♪ Get the outro music here! http://bit.ly/23isQfx *Music by Sean and Dean Kiner: http://bit.ly/1WdBhnm
Views: 782406 Extra Credits