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Product Costs and Period Costs
 
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This video provides a relatively simple, qualitative explanation of how expenses are categorized as either product (manufacturing) costs versus period (non-manufacturing) costs within a production firm and is intended for students just beginning a course in managerial accounting.
Views: 38565 The Accounting Tutor
Manufacturing Costs (Direct Materials, Labor, Manufacturing Overhead) and Product and Period Costs.
 
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Full Crash Course on Udemy for $9.99! http://bit.ly/2DfGBXu ​Costs can be split up into manufacturing and non-manufacturing costs. We'll look over certain direct and indirect costs and decide how they should be categorized. This tutorial will come in handy when we begin to prepare Cost of Goods Manufactured Statements! Website: http://www.notepirate.com Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Note-Pirate/514933148520001?ref=hl Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/notepirate We appreciate all of the support you guys have given us. Be apart of the mission to help us reach more students by subscribing, thumbs upping and adding the videos to your favorites! ** Notepirate is privately owned and exclusive to Notepirate.com.**
Views: 62534 Notepirate
Product Costs in Manufacturing (aka Inventoriable Costs)
 
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This video explains the concept of product costs (aka inventoriable costs) for a manufacturing firm. An example is provided to illustrate how product costs attach to a product (first as inventory, then later through cost of goods sold), as opposed to period costs which are expensed as incurred (and thus are not attached to the product or affected by its flow). Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 29909 Edspira
Direct Material, Direct Labor & Overhead, Product and Period Cost | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam
 
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Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, indirect labor, selling cost, administrative cost, product cost, period costs, prime cost, conversion cost, variable cost, fixed cost, committed fixed cost, discretionary fixed cost, relevant range, mixed cost, engineering approach, scatter-graph, high-low method,
Accounting: Product Costs
 
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Copyright by Brian R. Lazarus. 2011. Check out this website: http://www.lazarusbusinesssolutions.com for other related video lectures.
Views: 9187 profblazarus
Basic Product Costing Concepts.mp4
 
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Basic product costing concepts video
Views: 84971 K S
3 Types of Manufacturing Costs (Direct Materials, Direct Labor, Manufacturing Overhead)
 
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This videos identifies and defines the three types of manufacturing costs: Direct Materials, Direct Labor, and Manufacturing Overhead. The video also provides examples of each type of manufacturing cost to better illustrate the concepts. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 135414 Edspira
How to Price a Product - Cost Accounting
 
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http://greatbusinesscontent.com Learn how to price your product using the cost accounting method. Using this method allows for you to earn a wage plus a profit. Use it when starting your own small business. When starting your own small business one of the most difficult tasks is deciding how to price your product or service. Many small business owners struggle over this, price it too high and people don't buy, price it too low and you may not break-even. In this segment I help Henry answer his question: "I'm starting a T-shirt shop and need to know how to price my product so that I can later afford to hire an employee". To research this answer I spoke with Keith Mattson, a CPA, about Henry's problem. The answer Keith gave is one that every small business owner can use in their small business. It all starts with understanding "cost accounting" methods. Being willing to understand expenses and profit is the difference between supporting you and your family or just hanging on and feeding your business every month! For more information on starting or running a small business please stop by GreatBusinessContent.com
Views: 3588 Steve Freeman
Topic 8 - Product costing
 
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A recording of Lecture 8 of Accounting for Managerial Decisions for the Autumn 2016 session. Provides an introduction to product costing. Recorded on May 19, 2016.
Views: 3356 drdavebond
Job Order Costing Explained | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 3 P 1
 
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Under absorption costing, product costs include all manufacturing costs. Some manufacturing costs, such as direct materials, can be directly traced to particular products. For example, the cost of the airbags installed in a Toyota Camry can be easily traced to that particular auto. But what about manufacturing costs like factory rent? Such costs do not change from month to month, whereas the number and variety of products made in the factory may vary dramatically from one month to the next. Because these costs remain unchanged from month to month regardless of what products are made, they are clearly not caused by—and cannot be directly traced to—any particular product. Therefore, these types of costs are assigned to products and services by averaging across time and across products. The type of production process influences how this averaging is done. Job-order costing is used in situations where many different products, each with individual and unique features, are produced each period. For example, a Levi Strauss clothing factory would typically make many different types of jeans for both men and women during a month. This is a custom product that is being made for the first time, but if this were one of the company’s standard products, it would have an established bill of materials. A bill of materials is a document that lists the type and quantity of each type of direct material needed to complete a unit of product. The materials requisition form is a document that specifies the type and quantity of materials to be drawn from the storeroom and identifies the job that will be charged for the cost of the materials. The form is used to control the flow of materials into production and also for making entries in the accounting records. A job cost sheet records the materials, labor, and manufacturing overhead costs charged to that job. Measuring Direct Labor Cost Direct labor consists of labor charges that can be easily traced to a particular job. Labor charges that cannot be easily traced directly to any job are treated as part of manufacturing overhead. As discussed in a previous chapter, this latter category of labor costs is called indirect labor and includes tasks such as maintenance, supervision, and cleanup. Today many companies rely on computerized systems (rather than paper and pencil) to maintain employee time tickets. A completed time ticket is an hour-by-hour summary of the employee’s activities throughout the day. One computerized approach to creating time tickets uses bar codes to capture data. Computing Predetermined Overhead Rates. There are three reasons for this: Manufacturing overhead is an indirect cost. This means that it is either impossible or difficult to trace these costs to a particular product or job. Manufacturing overhead consists of many different types of cost ranging from the grease used in machines to the annual salary of the production manager. Some of these costs are variable overhead costs because they vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of production (e.g., indirect materials, supplies, and power) and some are fixed overhead costs because they remain constant as the level of production fluctuates (e.g., heat and light, property taxes, and insurance).Page 123 Because of the fixed costs in manufacturing overhead, total manufacturing overhead costs tend to remain relatively constant from one period to the next even though the number of units produced can fluctuate widely. Consequently, the average cost per unit will vary from one period to the next. An allocation base is a measure such as direct labor-hours (DLH) or machine-hours (MH) that is used to assign overhead costs to products and services. The most widely used allocation bases in manufacturing are direct labor-hours, direct labor cost, machine-hours and (where a company has only a single product) units of product. Job order costing, Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, job cost sheet, job number, subsidiary ledger, material requisition form, bill of materials, time ticket, allocation base predetermined overhead rate, cost driver, fixed overhead, variable overhead Raw materials, work in process, finished goods, cost of goods manufactured, manufactured overhead cost Cost of goods manufactured Underapplied, overapplied
Joint Product Costs and the Splitoff Point
 
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This video introduces the concept of joint costs and the splitoff point in managerial accounting. Joint products refer to two or more products that are produced from the same input. The point at which the raw product is transformed into multiple joint products is known as the splitoff point. (Note: a product with a relatively low sales value may be referred to as a by-product rather than a joint product) Costs incurred prior to the splitoff point are known as joint costs. Joint costs are commonly allocated to the individual joint products (using the relative sales method, physical unit method, or Net Realizeable Value method) for purposes of computing Cost of Goods Sold. However, joint costs are not relevant when deciding what to do with a product after the splitoff point has been reached (for example, in a sell-or-process further decision). After the splitoff point has been reached, joint costs have already been incurred-- thus, managers should only consider the incremental costs and revenues. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 37516 Edspira
How to calculate the Cost of product
 
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Let's Make Your Business Digital With Lapaas. Join Our Most Advanced Digital Marketing Course. That will cover 23 Modules of Business And Digital Marketing like SEO, SEM, Email Marketing, Social Media Marketing, Affiliate Marketing , Digital Identity Creation, blogging, advanced analytics, blogging, video production, Photoshop, business Knowhow, etc To Know More Call +919540065704 or Visit https://lapaas.com/ Lapaas - Best Digital Marketing Institute 455 Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi-110042 Nearest Metro Station Samaypur Badli Or Rithala How much a product cost for a manufacturer? What should be the MRP for the product? To answer these questions several factors need to be concerned. Total cost = Fixed cost + Variable cost So what comes under fixed cost? It involves wages of the employees, rent of the factory,interest expense,stc. Variable cost involves extra hourly wages of employees, operation cost,raw materials,packaging,etc. So the total cost can be calculated by adding fixed and variable cost. Watch this video to learn more. Share, Support, Subscribe!!! Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/IntellectualIndies Twitter: https://twitter.com/Intellectualins Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/IntellectualIndies Facebook Myself: https://www.facebook.com/princesahilkhanna Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/intellectualindies/ Website: sahilkhanna.in About : Intellectual Indies is a YouTube Channel, Intellectual Indies is all about improving Mentally, Emotionally, Psychologically, Spiritually & Physically.
Views: 24304 Intellectual Indies
Food Product Cost & Pricing Tutorial
 
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Step-by-step directions on how to use the Small Food Business Food Product Cost & Pricing Spreadsheet tool to determine accurate product costs and create a profitable multi-channel pricing strategy.
Views: 199088 Small Food Business
Job Costing - Flow of Costs
 
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Manufacturing costs Product costs Flow of costs in manufacturing t-accounts Allocating overhead Example of calculating overhead applied under normal costing and actual costing
Product Costing
 
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Bob wants to know how much his bakery products cost to manufacture. Bobs applies job costing and process costing principles to work out the cost of two products in his bakery.
Product Cost per Unit - Determine Relevant Costs - CSUN Gateway Managerial Accounting - Problem 13
 
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Please buy a copy of Scholarships: Quick and Easy: https://www.amazon.com/Scholarships-Devon-Patrick-Scott-Coombs/dp/1530670330/ref=tmm_pap_swatch_0?_encoding=UTF8&qid=&sr= Devon Coombs explains how to determine relevant product costs per unit when given multiple product costs. Follow the link below for the question in this video: http://www.csun.edu/sites/default/files/managerialquiz.pdf Follow me on Twitter and LinkedIn: https://twitter.com/devonpscoombs https://www.linkedin.com/in/devoncoombs Please subscribe to my channel :)
Views: 10785 Business Core Tutoring
Absorption Costing
 
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This video explains the concept of Absorption Costing in Managerial Accounting. A comprehensive example is provided to explain how absorption costing is used to calculate per unit product costs as well as to create an absorption costing income statement. The video also contrasts the absorption costing method with the variable cost method and discusses how the use of absorption costing can lead to distorted measures of profitability and perverse managerial incentives. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 209121 Edspira
What is a Product Cost vs. Period Cost?
 
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WANNA MASTER MANAGERIAL ACCOUNTING? CLAIM YOUR 50% OFF COUPON BELOW! https://www.udemy.com/managerial-accounting-the-ultimate-beginner-course/?couponCode=50_OFFM Hey Students! In this video today, we use an easy example of a car factory to show you how Product Costs and Period Costs work in Managerial Accounting. See how we calculate product costs and how materials, labor and overhead work. Product Costs are what make up a product. What about the other costs such as Period Costs? Learn more about selling and admin costs. Find out how in this engaging video. Take a look! ******************************************************************** Wanna Master Managerial Accounting? Claim your 50% Off Coupon Now! Managerial Accounting - The Ultimate Beginner Course: https://www.udemy.com/managerial-accounting-the-ultimate-beginner-course/?couponCode=50_OFFM ******************************************************************** SUBSCRIBE SO YOU CAN MASTER ACCOUNTING! https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCCyBG-qtLqfvCdSG34ES8Ag WANT TO LEARN MORE? CONNECT WITH ME BELOW: ******************************************************************** FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/accountinguniversity?ref=hl GOOGLE+ https://plus.google.com/u/0/b/118255991627414878635/+Accountinguniv/posts WEBSITE http://accountinguniv.com/ ******************************************************************** Comment Below if you have any questions!
Views: 7942 Accounting University
Accounting: Cost of Goods Manufactured/ Cost of Goods Sold: Part I
 
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Copyright by Brian R. Lazarus. 2011. Check out this website: http://www.lazarusbusinesssolutions.com for other related video lectures.
Views: 167901 profblazarus
Product Cost Vs Period Cost | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 2 P 2
 
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Product Costs For financial accounting purposes, product costs include all costs involved in acquiring or making a product. In the case of manufactured goods, these costs consist of direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead.1 Product costs “attach” to units of product as the goods are purchased or manufactured, and they remain attached as the goods go into inventory awaiting sale. Product costs are initially assigned to an inventory account on the balance sheet. When the goods are sold, the costs are released from inventory as expenses (typically called cost of goods sold) and matched against sales revenue on the income statement. Because product costs are initially assigned to inventories, they are also known as inventoriable costs. We want to emphasize that product costs are not necessarily recorded as expenses on the income statement in the period in which they are incurred. Rather, as explained above, they are recorded as expenses in the period in which the related products are sold. Period Costs Period costs are all the costs that are not product costs. All selling and administrative expenses are treated as period costs. For example, sales commissions, advertising, executive salaries, public relations, and the rental costs of administrative offices are all period costs. Period costs are not included as part of the cost of either purchased or manufactured goods; instead, period costs are expensed on the income statement in the period in which they are incurred using the usual rules of accrual accounting. Keep in mind that the period in which a cost is incurred is not necessarily the period in which cash changes hands. For example, as discussed earlier, the costs of liability insurance are spread across the periods that benefit from the insurance—regardless of the period in which the insurance premium is paid. Page 28 Prime Cost and Conversion Cost Two more cost categories are often used in discussions of manufacturing costs—prime cost and conversion cost. Prime cost is the sum of direct materials cost and direct labor cost. Conversion cost is the sum of direct labor cost and manufacturing overhead cost. The term conversion cost is used to describe direct labor and manufacturing overhead because these costs are incurred to convert materials into the finished product. product cost, period costs, prime cost, conversion cost, variable cost, fixed cost, committed fixed cost, discretionary fixed cost, relevant range, mixed cost, engineering approach, scattergraph, high-low method, traditional format, contribution format, Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, indirect labor, selling cost, administrative cost, cpa exam. Manufacturing Overhead Manufacturing overhead, the third manufacturing cost category, includes all manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labor. Manufacturing overhead includes items such as indirect materials; indirect labor; maintenance and repairs on production equipment; and heat and light, property taxes, depreciation, and insurance on manufacturing facilities. A company also incurs costs for heat and light, property taxes, insurance, depreciation, and so forth, associated with its selling and administrative functions, but these costs are not included as part of manufacturing overhead. Only those costs associated with operating the factory are included in manufacturing overhead. Various names are used for manufacturing overhead, such as indirect manufacturing cost, factory overhead, and factory burden. All of these terms are synonyms for manufacturing overhead. Nonmanufacturing Costs Nonmanufacturing costs are often divided into two categories: (1) selling costs and (2) administrative costs. Selling costs include all costs that are incurred to secure customer orders and get the finished product to the customer. These costs are sometimes called order-getting and order-filling costs. Examples of selling costs include advertising, shipping, sales travel, sales commissions, sales salaries, and costs of finished goods warehouses. Selling costs can be either direct or indirect costs. For example, the cost of an advertising campaign dedicated to one specific product is a direct cost of that product, whereas the salary of a marketing manager who oversees numerous products is an indirect cost with respect to individual products. Administrative costs include all costs associated with the general management of an organization rather than with manufacturing or selling. Examples of administrative costs include executive compensation, general accounting, secretarial, public relations, and similar costs involved in the overall, general administration of the organization as a whole. Administrative costs can be either direct or indirect costs.
Manufacturing Costs t accounts!
 
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How to calculate the cost of goods manufactured, sold and the journal entries See the link below to access the problem https://www.dropbox.com/s/n6m943t02o8vpp2/problemforcogmtaccounts.docx
Views: 16664 SuperSshk
Variable Costing (the Variable Costing method in Managerial Accounting)
 
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This video explains the Variable Costing method that some manufacturing firms use internally to compute product costs and calculate cost of goods sold. An example is provided to illustrate how to use Variable Costing to calculate the product cost per unit and to create a Variable Costing Income Statement. The video also discusses the difference between Variable Costing and Absorption Costing and explains why Variable Costing is in many ways superior to Absorption Costing. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 68842 Edspira
Cost component structure in SAP Product Costing
 
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This video about how to create cost component structure in product costing. if you any queries you can send mail to my id:[email protected] /Call @ 9902312118.
Views: 13456 SAP FICO Vision
Product Costs in Manufacturing (direct labor, direct materials, and Overhead expenses )👌
 
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Product Costs Product cost refers to the costs used to create a product. These costs include direct labor, direct materials, consumable production supplies, and factory overhead. To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/accountingPlusS/ Subscribe us: https://www.youtube.com/accountingplus Direct materials are those materials and supplies that are consumed during the manufacture of a product, and which are directly identified with that product. Direct labor cost is wages that are incurred in order to produce specific goods or provide specific services to customers. Overhead expenses are all costs on the income statement except for direct labor, direct materials, and direct expenses. Overhead expenses include accounting fees, advertising, insurance, interest, legal fees, labor burden, rent, repairs, supplies, taxes, telephone bills, travel expenditures, and utilities. Product cost formula Product cost = Direct materials + Direct labor + Overhead expenses Product cost per unit = Direct materials + Direct labor + Overhead expenses/ Total production units Product Costs Example Product cost = $5,000+1,000+4,000 = 10,000 #Productcosts #Accounting #PC
Views: 136 Accountingplus
Cost of Goods Manufactured, Cost of Goods Sold; Product versus Period costs - Accounting video
 
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Discussion on the flow of costs in a manufacturing company. Simple discussion on direct materials, direct labor and overhead. Also discussed are cost of goods manufactured, cost of good sold, prime costs, period costs, product costs, and conversion costs. Other videos in this series: Part 1 - Cost Terminology Part 3 - Gross Profit Income Statement For more accounting/how to eLectures (and accompanying lecture notes), blog and a discount textbook-store visit www.TheAccountingDr.com. Please leave any question you have as comments and I will be happy to respond. NOTE: Videos may require Flash media and may not play on devices without Flash capabilities (i.e. iPad)
How to Prepare a Cost of Goods Manufactured Statement (Cost Accounting Tutorial #24)
 
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Full Crash Course on Udemy for $9.99! http://bit.ly/2DfGBXu The cost of goods manufactured statement displays the cost of products manufactured in a period by breaking down the costs into direct materials, direct labor, manufacturing overhead and changes in work in process. Cost of goods manufactured will ultimately be added to finished goods and be expensed as cost of goods sold. Website: http://www.notepirate.com Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Note-Pirate/514933148520001?ref=hl Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/notepirate We appreciate all of the support you guys have given us. Be apart of the mission to help us reach more students by subscribing, thumbs upping and adding the videos to your favorites! ** Notepirate is privately owned and exclusive to Notepirate.com.**
Views: 84443 Notepirate
Stock accounting and product costing in Odoo inventory
 
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For more information, please refer to https://www.odoo.com/page/warehouse To schedule a demo, please refer to https://www.odoo.com/r/demo-dalagon
Views: 2406 Odoo
8.  Managerial Accounting Ch2 Exercises Pt1: Manufacturing Costs, Product Costs, Period Costs
 
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Accounting Course - Managerial Accounting - Cost Accounting Exercises: 2.1 Classifying Manufacturing Costs 2.2 Classification of Costs as Period or Product Costs Text used: Managerial Accounting Tenth edition Garrison et al. Publisher: McGrawHill
Views: 9900 Mark Meldrum
Process Costing
 
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This video explains the concept of process costing in managerial accounting. Process costing is compared and contrasted with job-order costing, and an example is provided to illustrate the cost flows and associated journal entries of a process costing system. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 176975 Edspira
Activity Based Costing Examples - Managerial Accounting video
 
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Activity Based Costing Example - Accounting video by TheAccountingDr is a tutorial video with examples on using an activity-based costing system: 1) calculate the allocation rate and 2) allocated costs (overhead/indirect costs) using the allocation rate. In addition, we calculate the indirect costs per unit of planned products as well as the product costs per unit of planned products (direct materials + direct labor + OH). Managerial Accounting lecture notes: http://tiny.cc/nw1enw Activity-Based Costing terminology review game: http://tiny.cc/mxgoow -- Thank you all for your wonderful support. Because of your support we have been able to reach and help numerous accounting students. Please continue to be a part of our mission to help other accounting students be successful by giving our videos thumbs up, giving comments and adding our videos to your favorites. Subscribe: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=routhwsuedu Friend me on Facebook and post your questions: http://www.facebook.com/TheAccountingDoctor -- For more accounting/how to eLectures (and accompanying lecture notes) similar to Activity-Based Costing Examples - Managerial Accounting video, blog, FAQs and accounting eBooks visit http://www.TheAccountingDr.com. Activity-Based Costing Examples - Managerial Accounting video: http://youtu.be/7SNjEHIYjns -- Please note that videos may require Flash media and may not play on devices without Flash capabilities (i.e. iPad). If you are having difficulty viewing this video on YouTube, these videos may also be viewed without Flash on my website at http://www.TheAccountingDr.com.
Stock accounting and product costing in Odoo inventory
 
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For more information, please refer to https://www.odoo.com To schedule a demo, please refer to https://www.odoo.com/r/demo-npouplard If you have any question, please send it to [email protected]
Views: 1156 Odoo
Accounting for Byproducts:  the Production Method vs. the Sales Method
 
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This video shows how to account for byproducts. In so doing, it compares and contrasts the Production Method and Sales Method for accounting for byproducts. The Production Method requires that byproducts be accounted for when produced (e.g., that their Net Realizable reduce Cost of Goods Sold when the byproduct is actually produced) while the Sales Method requires byproducts to be recognized in the period in which the byproducts are sold. The Sales Method thus gives managers an opportunity to engage in earnings management, as they can wait to sell byproducts until they want to boost earnings. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 8879 Edspira
Costing : Basic Cost Concepts : Chapter 1 : Lecture 1 : CA : CS : CMA
 
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Views: 344877 CA dilip badlani
Product Costs & Period Costs - Managerial Accounting
 
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Product costs and period costs are distinctions of costs we generally see in managerial accounting. Product costs are costs assigned to production and include direct labor, direct materials and overhead. Period costs are costs incurred during a time period which are usually expensed and include selling an administrative costs. The distinction between product costs and period costs is important for managerial accounting because product costs will not be expensed at the time they are incurred but will be capitalized as part of the cost of inventory. Product costs will eventually be expenses in to form of cost of goods sold when the product is sold. For more accounting information see website. http://accountinginstruction.info/
Direct Cost Vs Indirect Cost | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 2 P 1
 
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Direct Cost A direct cost is a cost that can be easily and conveniently traced to a specified cost object. Indirect Cost An indirect cost is a cost that cannot be easily and conveniently traced to a specified cost object. For example, a Campbell Soup factory may produce dozens of varieties of canned soups. A common cost is a cost that is incurred to support a number of cost objects but cannot be traced to them individually. A common cost is a type of indirect cost. A particular cost may be direct or indirect, depending on the cost object. Direct Labor Direct labor consists of labor costs that can be easily (i.e., physically and conveniently) traced to individual units of product. Direct labor is sometimes called touch labor because direct labor workers typically touch the product while it is being made. Labor costs that cannot be physically traced to particular products, or that can be traced only at great cost and inconvenience, are termed indirect labor. Just like indirect materials, indirect labor is treated as part of manufacturing overhead. Indirect labor includes the labor costs of janitors, supervisors, materials handlers, and night security guards. Although the efforts of these workers are essential, it would be either impractical or impossible to accurately trace their costs to specific units of product. Hence, such labor costs are treated as indirect labor. Manufacturing Overhead Manufacturing overhead, the third manufacturing cost category, includes all manufacturing costs except direct materials and direct labor. Manufacturing overhead includes items such as indirect materials; indirect labor; maintenance and repairs on production equipment; and heat and light, property taxes, depreciation, and insurance on manufacturing facilities. A company also incurs costs for heat and light, property taxes, insurance, depreciation, and so forth, associated with its selling and administrative functions, but these costs are not included as part of manufacturing overhead. Only those costs associated with operating the factory are included in manufacturing overhead. Various names are used for manufacturing overhead, such as indirect manufacturing cost, factory overhead, and factory burden. All of these terms are synonyms for manufacturing overhead. Nonmanufacturing Costs Nonmanufacturing costs are often divided into two categories: (1) selling costs and (2) administrative costs. Selling costs include all costs that are incurred to secure customer orders and get the finished product to the customer. These costs are sometimes called order-getting and order-filling costs. Examples of selling costs include advertising, shipping, sales travel, sales commissions, sales salaries, and costs of finished goods warehouses. Selling costs can be either direct or indirect costs. For example, the cost of an advertising campaign dedicated to one specific product is a direct cost of that product, whereas the salary of a marketing manager who oversees numerous products is an indirect cost with respect to individual products. Administrative costs include all costs associated with the general management of an organization rather than with manufacturing or selling. Examples of administrative costs include executive compensation, general accounting, secretarial, public relations, and similar costs involved in the overall, general administration of the organization as a whole. Administrative costs can be either direct or indirect costs. For example, the salary of an accounting manager in charge of accounts receivable collections in the East region is a direct cost of that region, whereas the salary of a chief financial officer who oversees all of a company’s regions is an indirect cost with respect to individual regions. Nonmanufacturing costs are also often called selling, general, and administrative (SG&A) costs or just selling and administrative costs. Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, indirect labor, selling cost, administrative cost, product cost, period costs, prime cost, conversion cost, variable cost, fixed cost, committed fixed cost, discretionary fixed cost, relevant range, mixed cost, engineering approach, scattergraph, high-low method, traditional format, contribution format income statement, differential cost, differential revenue, opportunity cost.sunk cost, relevant cost.
Joint Product Costing Using The Four Different Methods
 
21:54
Learn how to answer questions using any of the four different methods. Physical Quantity at split off point, Sales Value at split off point, Further Processing at split off point and Net Realisation at split off point. 👍🏾
Views: 2980 HS Tutorial
Joint Products and Byproduct Costing | Cost Accounting
 
12:17
This recording covers joint products and by-product costing (by-product costing) where cost is allocated at split off point using relative sales value or net realizable value. My website: https://farhatlectures.com/ Facebook page: https://www.facebook.com/accountinglectures LinkedIn: https://goo.gl/Pp2ter Twitter: https://twitter.com/farhatlectures Email Contact: [email protected]
Managerial Accounting: Product vs Period Costs
 
04:40
Help us caption & translate this video! http://amara.org/v/FynI/
Views: 4675 ProfAlldredge
Activity Based Costing vs. Traditional Costing
 
08:43
This video discusses the key differences between Activity Based Costing and traditional costing systems in the context of managerial accounting. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 150777 Edspira
Direct vs. Indirect Costs
 
02:39
This video defines direct and indirect costs and provides an example to illustrate the difference between direct and indirect costs. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 51435 Edspira
SAP Product Costing - (COPC) - Costing Sheet
 
38:45
This video explains the step by step process for SAP Product Cost Configuraiton for Overheads on Raw Materials.This from one of the Training class - please enjoy this. You can visit www.ficoanalyst.com for Expert / Detailed SAP Product Costing Training. This Video 1.Cost Estimation 2.Costing Variant Config 3.Costing Valuation Variant 4.Costing Sheet 5.Overhead Group and Overhead Key 6.Material Master link etc.,
Views: 51592 SAP and Cloud
Management Accounting Job Order Journal Entries (Cost Accounting Tutorial #25)
 
11:44
Full Crash Course on Udemy for $9.99! http://bit.ly/2DfGBXu After going over the Cost of Goods Manufactured Statement we'll learn how to record journal entries for the usage of direct materials, incurring direct labor and overhead costs, along with transferring inventories. Overhead applied and overhead incurred are tricky, so pay attention specifically to that part! Website: http://www.notepirate.com Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Note-Pirate/514933148520001?ref=hl Follow us on Twitter: http://twitter.com/notepirate We appreciate all of the support you guys have given us. Be apart of the mission to help us reach more students by subscribing, thumbs upping and adding the videos to your favorites! ** Notepirate is privately owned and exclusive to Notepirate.com.**
Views: 31928 Notepirate
Costing Theory Part 11 II Product Cost and Period Cost Meaning By Chander Durjea For CA/CS/CMA
 
09:57
Product Cost and Period Cost Meaning By Chander Durjea For CA/CS/CMA -9717356614 Website : www.cdclasses.com CMA CHANDER DUREJA FOR SFM FM & COST In this video you will be able to understand : 1. product cost vs period cost meaning with examples, 2.Difference between product cost and period cost 3.is indirect labor a period cost 4.product cost and period cost 5. is advertising a period cost Other Theory Videos are given in following Playlist : https://youtu.be/DnAflbEs_xc
Views: 605 CMA. Chander Dureja
Marginal & Variable Costing – Part 1 of 4 by Vijay Adarsh | Cost Accounts |B.Com (HINDI | हिंदी)
 
16:13
Marginal Cost: - The variable cost of one unit of a product or a service. Marginal Costing: - A principle whereby variable costs are charged to cost units and the fixed cost attributable to the relevant period is written off in full against contribution for that period. What to Study in this Chapter 1) Marginal Cost 2) Marginal Costing and Differential Costing 3) Segregation of semi-variable Overheads 4) Contribution 5) Profit/Volume Ratio (P/V Ratio) 6) Key Factor 7) Break-even Analysis 8) Break-even Chart 9) Angle of Incidence 10) Margin of Safety 11) Advantage of Marginal Costing 12) Limitation of Marginal Costing 13) Application of Marginal Costing Technique About Vijay Adarsh: Vijay Adarsh (CEO and Director of StayLearning) is a Successful Teacher and Famous Coach. He is the most enthusiastic, dynamic, informative and result oriented coach. He is a commerce graduate from Delhi University. After completing B.com (Hons), he completed his post-graduation and now pursuing PhD. He started teaching students of and motivating people at the age of 17 and possesses a vast experience of teaching more than 45,000 hrs. He has simplified subjects and made it very interesting, Learning with Fun and Easy for the students. His easy class notes, beautiful animated & graphic presentations are popular among the students. He is popular among the student community for possessing the excellent ability to communicate the concepts in analytical and graphical way. He has conducted many seminars & workshops on various topics for Students, Teachers, Schools, Businessman, Housewife, Income Tax Offices, Doctors, CA's and Corporate Houses. He is also the author of several Books, e-Books, Motivational Articles & Stories Books and Launched many Audio & Video Programs. About Video Lectures: Video Lectures for Cost Accounting by Vijay Adarsh evolved as utility services for our own students. We had thought that recorded lecture would be an excellent reinforcement tool for the students and it proved to be exactly that. We have video lectures for Class 11th, 12th, B.Com (H/P), M.Com, MBA examination. These are our classroom lectures which form a very good source of study material. Now we also have special set of video lectures which are specially prepared to suit the need for the board students. The Lectures Covers in full depth, the description of all the involved concepts. Studying through lectures largely reduces the need of individual tuition. Lectures can be use at a pace which suits us. Students can pause and rewind the lectures according to their need. Complete practice tests and solutions of every topic would also be provided. Website: http://www.vijayadarsh.com Join us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/VijayAdarshIndia E-mail : [email protected] : [email protected] Contact: +91 9268373738 (Buy Now Video Lectures)
Views: 39327 StayLearning
X. H. Variable Costing  Product Cost per Unit.wmv
 
03:18
Illustration of the calculation of product cost per unit under Variable Costing.
Views: 11724 PamelaDJonesWCU
Example: Process Costing | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 4 P 2
 
20:00
Process costing is used when there is mass production of similar products, where the costs associated with individual units of output cannot be differentiated from each other. In other words, the cost of each product produced is assumed to be the same as the cost of every other product. Under this concept, costs are accumulated over a fixed period of time, summarized, and then allocated to all of the units produced during that period of time on a consistent basis. When products are instead being manufactured on an individual basis, job costing is used to accumulate costs and assign the costs to products. When a production process contains some mass manufacturing and some customized elements, then a hybrid costing system is used. Examples of the industries where this type of production occurs include oil refining, food production, and chemical processing. For example, how would you determine the precise cost required to create one gallon of aviation fuel, when thousands of gallons of the same fuel are gushing out of a refinery every hour? The cost accounting methodology used for this scenario is process costing. Process costing is the only reasonable approach to determining product costs in many industries. It uses most of the same journal entries found in a job costing environment, so there is no need to restructure the chart of accounts to any significant degree. This makes it easy to switch over to a job costing system from a process costing one if the need arises, or to adopt a hybrid approach that uses portions of both systems. Example of Process Cost Accounting As a process costing example, ABC International produces purple widgets, which require processing through multiple production departments. The first department in the process is the casting department, where the widgets are initially created. During the month of March, the casting department incurs $50,000 of direct material costs and $120,000 of conversion costs (comprised of direct labor and factory overhead). The department processes 10,000 widgets during March, so this means that the per unit cost of the widgets passing through the casting department during that time period is $5.00 for direct materials and $12.00 for conversion costs. The widgets then move to the trimming department for further work, and these per-unit costs will be carried along with the widgets into that department, where additional costs will be added. Types of Process Costing There are three types of process costing, which are: Weighted average costs. This version assumes that all costs, whether from a preceding period or the current one, are lumped together and assigned to produced units. It is the simplest version to calculate. Standard costs. This version is based on standard costs. Its calculation is similar to weighted average costing, but standard costs are assigned to production units, rather than actual costs; after total costs are accumulated based on standard costs, these totals are compared to actual accumulated costs, and the difference is charged to a variance account. First-in first-out costing (FIFO). FIFO is a more complex calculation that creates layers of costs, one for any units of production that were started in the previous production period but not completed, and another layer for any production that is started in the current period. There is no last in, first out (LIFO) costing method used in process costing, since the underlying assumption of process costing is that the first unit produced is, in fact, the first unit used, which is the FIFO concept. Why have three different cost calculation methods for process costing, and why use one version instead of another? The different calculations are required for different cost accounting needs. The weighted average method is used in situations where there is no standard costing system, or where the fluctuations in costs from period to period are so slight that the management team has no need for the slight improvement in costing accuracy that can be obtained with the FIFO costing method. Alternatively, process costing that is based on standard costs is required for costing systems that use standard costs. It is also useful in situations where companies manufacture such a broad mix of products that they have difficulty accurately assigning actual costs to each type of product; under the other process costing methodologies, which both use actual costs, there is a strong chance that costs for different products will become mixed together. Process costing, equivalent units of production, FiFO method, weighted average, conversion cost flow of costs, cost accounted for, cpa exam, managerial accounting, raw materials, job order costing, work in process, processing departments, transferred-in cost, transferred out cost
Predetermined Overhead Rate | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 3 P 2
 
20:55
manufacturing overhead also needs to be recorded on the job cost sheet. However, assigning manufacturing overhead to a specific job involves some difficulties. There are three reasons for this: Manufacturing overhead is an indirect cost. This means that it is either impossible or difficult to trace these costs to a particular product or job. Manufacturing overhead consists of many different types of cost ranging from the grease used in machines to the annual salary of the production manager. Some of these costs are variable overhead costs because they vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of production (e.g., indirect materials, supplies, and power) and some are fixed overhead costs because they remain constant as the level of production fluctuates (e.g., heat and light, property taxes, and insurance).Page 123 Because of the fixed costs in manufacturing overhead, total manufacturing overhead costs tend to remain relatively constant from one period to the next even though the number of units produced can fluctuate widely. Consequently, the average cost per unit will vary from one period to the next. Given these problems, allocation is used to assign overhead costs to products. Allocation is accomplished by selecting an allocation base that is common to all of the company’s products and services. An allocation base is a measure such as direct labor-hours (DLH) or machine-hours (MH) that is used to assign overhead costs to products and services. The most widely used allocation bases in manufacturing are direct labor-hours, direct labor cost, machine-hours and (where a company has only a single product) units of product. Manufacturing overhead is commonly assigned to products using a predetermined overhead rate. The predetermined overhead rate is computed by dividing the total estimated manufacturing overhead cost for the period by the estimated total amount of the allocation base for the period as follows: The predetermined overhead rate is computed before the period begins using a four-step process. The first step is to estimate the total amount of the allocation base (the denominator) that will be required for next period’s estimated level of production. The second step is to estimate the total fixed manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period and the variable manufacturing overhead cost per unit of the allocation base. The third step is to use the cost formula shown below to estimate the total manufacturing overhead cost (the numerator) for the coming period: Y = a + bX where, Y = The estimated total manufacturing overhead cost a = The estimated total fixed manufacturing overhead cost b = The estimated variable manufacturing overhead cost per unit of the allocation base X = The estimated total amount of the allocation base The fourth step is to compute the predetermined overhead rate. Notice, the estimated amount of the allocation base is determined before estimating the total manufacturing overhead cost. This needs to be done because total manufacturing overhead cost includes variable overhead costs that depend on the amount of the allocation base. The Need for a Predetermined Rate Instead of using a predetermined rate based on estimates, why not base the overhead rate on the actual total manufacturing overhead cost and the actual total amount of the allocation base incurred on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis? If an actual rate is computed monthly or quarterly, seasonal factors in overhead costs or in the allocation base can produce fluctuations in the overhead rate. For example, the costs of heating and cooling a factory in Illinois will be highest in the winter and summer months and lowest in the spring and fall. If the overhead rate is recomputed at the end of each month or each quarter based on actual costs and activity, the overhead rate would go up in the winter and summer and down in the spring and fall. As a result, two identical jobs, one completed in the winter and one completed in the spring, would be assigned different manufacturing overhead costs. Many managers believe that such fluctuations in product costs serve no useful purpose. To avoid such fluctuations, actual overhead rates could be computed on an annual or less-frequent basis. However, if the overhead rate is computed annually based on the actual costs and activity for the year, the manufacturing overhead assigned to any particular job would not be known until the end of the year. predetermined overhead rate, cost driver, fixed overhead, variable overhead Raw materials, work in process, finished goods, cost of goods manufactured, manufactured overhead cost Cost of goods manufactured Underapplied, overapplied, Job order costing, Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, job cost sheet, job number, subsidiary ledger, material requisition form, bill of materials, time ticket, allocation base
Activity Based Costing (Part 1) Cost Pools and 1st Stage Allocation
 
13:56
This video explains the process of activity-based costing. Using an example to illustrate the process, this video shows how to identify cost pools, assign costs to the costs pools in the first stage allocation, and calculate activity rates. Edspira is your source for business and financial education. To view the entire video library for free, visit http://www.Edspira.com To like us on Facebook, visit https://www.facebook.com/Edspira Edspira is the creation of Michael McLaughlin, who went from teenage homelessness to a PhD. The goal of Michael's life is to increase access to education so all people can achieve their dreams. To learn more about Michael's story, visit http://www.MichaelMcLaughlin.com To follow Michael on Facebook, visit https://facebook.com/Prof.Michael.McLaughlin To follow Michael on Twitter, visit https://twitter.com/Prof_McLaughlin
Views: 80679 Edspira
Process Costing with Example | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 4 P 1
 
22:17
Process costing is used when there is mass production of similar products, where the costs associated with individual units of output cannot be differentiated from each other. In other words, the cost of each product produced is assumed to be the same as the cost of every other product. Under this concept, costs are accumulated over a fixed period of time, summarized, and then allocated to all of the units produced during that period of time on a consistent basis. When products are instead being manufactured on an individual basis, job costing is used to accumulate costs and assign the costs to products. When a production process contains some mass manufacturing and some customized elements, then a hybrid costing system is used. Examples of the industries where this type of production occurs include oil refining, food production, and chemical processing. For example, how would you determine the precise cost required to create one gallon of aviation fuel, when thousands of gallons of the same fuel are gushing out of a refinery every hour? The cost accounting methodology used for this scenario is process costing. Process costing is the only reasonable approach to determining product costs in many industries. It uses most of the same journal entries found in a job costing environment, so there is no need to restructure the chart of accounts to any significant degree. This makes it easy to switch over to a job costing system from a process costing one if the need arises, or to adopt a hybrid approach that uses portions of both systems. Example of Process Cost Accounting As a process costing example, ABC International produces purple widgets, which require processing through multiple production departments. The first department in the process is the casting department, where the widgets are initially created. During the month of March, the casting department incurs $50,000 of direct material costs and $120,000 of conversion costs (comprised of direct labor and factory overhead). The department processes 10,000 widgets during March, so this means that the per unit cost of the widgets passing through the casting department during that time period is $5.00 for direct materials and $12.00 for conversion costs. The widgets then move to the trimming department for further work, and these per-unit costs will be carried along with the widgets into that department, where additional costs will be added. Types of Process Costing There are three types of process costing, which are: Weighted average costs. This version assumes that all costs, whether from a preceding period or the current one, are lumped together and assigned to produced units. It is the simplest version to calculate. Standard costs. This version is based on standard costs. Its calculation is similar to weighted average costing, but standard costs are assigned to production units, rather than actual costs; after total costs are accumulated based on standard costs, these totals are compared to actual accumulated costs, and the difference is charged to a variance account. First-in first-out costing (FIFO). FIFO is a more complex calculation that creates layers of costs, one for any units of production that were started in the previous production period but not completed, and another layer for any production that is started in the current period. There is no last in, first out (LIFO) costing method used in process costing, since the underlying assumption of process costing is that the first unit produced is, in fact, the first unit used, which is the FIFO concept. Why have three different cost calculation methods for process costing, and why use one version instead of another? The different calculations are required for different cost accounting needs. The weighted average method is used in situations where there is no standard costing system, or where the fluctuations in costs from period to period are so slight that the management team has no need for the slight improvement in costing accuracy that can be obtained with the FIFO costing method. Alternatively, process costing that is based on standard costs is required for costing systems that use standard costs. It is also useful in situations where companies manufacture such a broad mix of products that they have difficulty accurately assigning actual costs to each type of product; under the other process costing methodologies, which both use actual costs, there is a strong chance that costs for different products will become mixed together. Process costing, equivalent units of production, FiFO method, weighted average, conversion cost flow of costs, cost accounted for, cpa exam, managerial accounting, raw materials, job order costing, work in process, processing departments, transferred-in cost, transferred out cost
Cost Flow in Process Costing Journal Entries | Managerial Accounting | CMA Exam | Ch 3 P 3
 
22:36
Job order costing, Direct cost, indirect cost, common cost, manufacturing overhead cost, indirect material, job cost sheet, job number, subsidiary ledger, material requisition form, bill of materials, time ticket, allocation base predetermined overhead rate, cost driver, fixed overhead, variable overhead Raw materials, work in process, finished goods, cost of goods manufactured, manufactured overhead cost Cost of goods manufactured Underapplied, overapplied manufacturing overhead also needs to be recorded on the job cost sheet. However, assigning manufacturing overhead to a specific job involves some difficulties. There are three reasons for this: Manufacturing overhead is an indirect cost. This means that it is either impossible or difficult to trace these costs to a particular product or job. Manufacturing overhead consists of many different types of cost ranging from the grease used in machines to the annual salary of the production manager. Some of these costs are variable overhead costs because they vary in direct proportion to changes in the level of production (e.g., indirect materials, supplies, and power) and some are fixed overhead costs because they remain constant as the level of production fluctuates (e.g., heat and light, property taxes, and insurance).Page 123 Because of the fixed costs in manufacturing overhead, total manufacturing overhead costs tend to remain relatively constant from one period to the next even though the number of units produced can fluctuate widely. Consequently, the average cost per unit will vary from one period to the next. Given these problems, allocation is used to assign overhead costs to products. Allocation is accomplished by selecting an allocation base that is common to all of the company’s products and services. An allocation base is a measure such as direct labor-hours (DLH) or machine-hours (MH) that is used to assign overhead costs to products and services. The most widely used allocation bases in manufacturing are direct labor-hours, direct labor cost, machine-hours and (where a company has only a single product) units of product. Manufacturing overhead is commonly assigned to products using a predetermined overhead rate. The predetermined overhead rate is computed by dividing the total estimated manufacturing overhead cost for the period by the estimated total amount of the allocation base for the period as follows: The predetermined overhead rate is computed before the period begins using a four-step process. The first step is to estimate the total amount of the allocation base (the denominator) that will be required for next period’s estimated level of production. The second step is to estimate the total fixed manufacturing overhead cost for the coming period and the variable manufacturing overhead cost per unit of the allocation base. The third step is to use the cost formula shown below to estimate the total manufacturing overhead cost (the numerator) for the coming period: Y = a + bX where, Y = The estimated total manufacturing overhead cost a = The estimated total fixed manufacturing overhead cost b = The estimated variable manufacturing overhead cost per unit of the allocation base X = The estimated total amount of the allocation base The fourth step is to compute the predetermined overhead rate. Notice, the estimated amount of the allocation base is determined before estimating the total manufacturing overhead cost. This needs to be done because total manufacturing overhead cost includes variable overhead costs that depend on the amount of the allocation base. The Need for a Predetermined Rate Instead of using a predetermined rate based on estimates, why not base the overhead rate on the actual total manufacturing overhead cost and the actual total amount of the allocation base incurred on a monthly, quarterly, or annual basis? If an actual rate is computed monthly or quarterly, seasonal factors in overhead costs or in the allocation base can produce fluctuations in the overhead rate. For example, the costs of heating and cooling a factory in Illinois will be highest in the winter and summer months and lowest in the spring and fall. If the overhead rate is recomputed at the end of each month or each quarter based on actual costs and activity, the overhead rate would go up in the winter and summer and down in the spring and fall. As a result, two identical jobs, one completed in the winter and one completed in the spring, would be assigned different manufacturing overhead costs. Many managers believe that such fluctuations in product costs serve no useful purpose. To avoid such fluctuations, actual overhead rates could be computed on an annual or less-frequent basis. However, if the overhead rate is computed annually based on the actual costs and activity for the year, the manufacturing overhead assigned to any particular job would not be known until the end of the year.

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