Principles and Techniques of Scientific Management | Part -2
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Hello guys, this is the 2nd part to the video Principles and Techniques of Scientific management.
First part of this video contains Principles of Scientific Management and this part contains Techniques of Scientific management. So, if you want to see Principles, kindly click the link below and if you want to watch Techniques of Scientific management, then stick to this video.
So, there are five main techniques of Scientific Management which are :-
1) Functional Foremanship
2) Standardisation of work
3) Scientific Study of work
4) Differential wage system/ Differential Piece rate
5) Mental Revolution
Let's understand each of these one by one.
First is Functional Foremanship.
It is an extension of principle of division of labour, resulting in specialisation. According to Taylor, a single worker or supervisor cannot be expected to be an expert in all aspects. Thus, he advocated the appointment of eight foremen to guide workers, under planning and production departments. Under the planning incharge, there are four personnel:
Instruction Card Clerk, Route Clerk, Time and Cost Clerk and Disciplinarian.
Whereas Under the Production In change there are also four personnel namely
Gang Boss, Repair Boss, Inspector and Speed Boss.
Let's do a very brief introduction of all of these personnel.
First is Instruction Card Clerk.
This clerk prepares the instruction cards for the workers and hands them over to the gang boss. These cards contain information about the nature of the work, procedure of doing it, material to be used and the details about machinery etc.
Next is Route clerk
This clerk ensures the sequence of completing a particular work and also decides the job to be done for the day and where it is to be done.
Third is Time and Cost Clerk
This clerk decides as to when a particular work is to be started and finished and also decides at what cost the product will be produced.
Next is Disciplinarian
He ensures that every work is being performed in a disciplined manner.
In Production in charge , first is
Gang Boss- See, the workers are divided into various groups from the point of view of control and A group leader is selected who is known as the gang boss. He is expected to ensure that both the workers and the machines are fit enough for production and that the material required for their use has been made available to them.
next is Repair Boss
The main function of the repair boss is to keep the machines and tools in working condition.
Third is Inspector
He inspects the things produced and compares their quality with the standard prescribed for them and tries to find out the difference. In case of unfavourable result he initiates corrective action.
and the last one is Speed Boss
The main function of the speed boss is to ensure that all the workers are performing their job at the required or expected speed so that work can be completed at the required time..
Next Technique of Scientific Management is Standardisation of Work.
Standardisation means setting standards for different factors, after due deliberation.
For example, the amount of work to be done by a worker in a day may be standardised.
In other words, the worker is expected to do the standard amount of work every day.
In the same manner standards may also be set for raw materials, machines and tools, techniques, conditions of work, etc
Third technique is Scientific Study of Work.
It means to conduct the deep analysis of all the activities being performed in the organisation with the aim of producing maximum possible quality output at minimum costs. Taylor has conducted the following studies:
(i) Method Study, (ii) Motion Study, (iii) Time Study, and (iv) Fatigue Study.
Let's know about each of these studies one by one
First is Method Study
This technique of scientific management is conducted to find out the ‘one best method or way’ of performing a particular task. The objective of this study is to minimise the cost of production and maximise the quality and satisfaction of the customer
Next is Motion study
Motion study refers to an in-depth study of movements of a worker while doing a task. Taylor recognised three types of movements:
(a) Productive (b) Unproductive (c) Incidental The objective of motion study is to eliminate unproductive movements in doing a task to achieve efficiency and reduce the time required to do the task.
Third is Time Study
It determines the standard time taken to perform a well-defined job. Time measuring devices were used to conduct this study. This type of study is helpful in deciding the time required to perform a job.
And Fourth is Fatigue Study
Fatigue study seeks to find out the amount and' frequency of rest intervals to be given to workers in completing a task. This would help the worker to regain his stamina and work with the same efficiency again.