Dragons and winged serpents appear in many myths told by people around the world. Could all those stories have come from a comet impact that happened at the end of the last ice age, some 12,900 years ago?
At the end of the last Ice Age, around 10,900 BC, an extreme and sudden drop of global temperatures marked the beginning of the geological era of the Younger Dryas. This near glacial period, with temperatures more than 10°C lower than today, was named after Dryas Octopetala, a small flower that grows in cold, artic conditions and became common in Europe during this time. Data from ice cores that were drilled in Antarctica and Greenland have revealed several other shorter cooling/warming events, now known as Dansgaard-Oerscher events.
The Younger Dryas return to a cold, glacial climate was first considered to be a regional event restricted to Europe, but later studies showed that it happened worldwide. The cooling lasted about 1,200 years, till around 9,700 BC and is one of the most well-known examples of abrupt climate change. The end of the Younger Dryas, about 11,700 years ago, was particularly abrupt. In Greenland, temperatures rose about 10°C in just a few years time, as was demonstrated by data from the Greenland Ice Core Project (GRIP).
Although it's unknown what caused the end of the Younger Dryas, it is now generally accepted that it started with a comet impact that hit North America 12,900 years ago. This event must have been an enormous global disaster. When the celestial object smashed into earth, possibly in a number of fragments, an enormous heat was released and large amounts of dust and ashes were blown into the atmosphere, eclipsing the Sun for years.
As a result of the energy released by the impacts parts of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which then covered most of North America, were melted which may have caused huge tidal waves. The sudden influx of fresh water from North America caused a shutdown of the North Atlantic Conveyor, which circulates warm tropical waters northward. This process, which formed the Great Lakes, may have contributed to the sudden drop in temperature.
The Younger Dryas Boundary, sometimes referred to as the "Black Mat," has long been recognized in sediments around the world as marking the beginning of the Younger Dryas. It also corresponds to the sudden disappearance of the North American Clovis people and many large animals including mammoths, mastodons, american camel, dire wolf, and giant ground sloth in North America.
In November 2018, a study revealed the existence of a a 31-kilometre-wide crater beneath Greenland's Hiawatha Glacier. The evidence suggests that the Hiawatha Crater was created after ice covered Greenland three million years ago, and perhaps as recently as 12,000 years ago.
The cataclysmic event may well have formed the basis for the many myths and legends about a winged serpent or fire-breathing dragon. Snakes had already been in use as religious and archetypical symbols long before, but the appearance of a havoc wreaking serpent in the sky might have been the reason to add the image of a flying dragon to that.
A comet approaching earth under an angle would be stretched out into a long string of fiery fragments and debris due to Earth's gravitational pull. This happens because, unlike asteroids, comets are mainly composed of dust and ice. To the people at that time it might have looked like a big fire-spitting serpent flying through the sky. Other impact events may also have served as an inspiration for this image, like the one that happened around 2,700 BC and according to some theories caused the Great Flood, a story known to so many different cultures all around the world.
A collection of ancient Norse myths and sagas called the Edda also seem to catch traditional glimpses of a terrible catastrophe, for instance in "The Vala's Prophecy:" "Hrym steers from the east, the waters rise, the mundane snake is coiled in the rage of the fire-giant. The worm beats the water, and the eagle screams: the pale of beak tears carcases... The stony hills are dashed together, the giantesses totter, men tread the path of Hel, and heaven is cloven...The sun darkens, earth in ocean sinks, fall from heaven the bright stars, fire's breath assails the all-nourishing tree, towering fire plays against heaven itself."
The image of a dragon is usually explained by pointing to the fact that skeletons of dinosaurs were found in earlier times as well. The ancient Greeks, for example, were well aware of their existence. This doen't explain, however, why dragons fly through the sky spitting fire and smoke.
Of course all this is just a hypothesis but one thing is certain: the arrival of a comet in the sky is considered to be a bad omen even today.
Music: Ott - Rogue Bagel
Sources: History Channel https://www.youtube.com/user/historychannel
National Geographic https://www.youtube.com/user/NationalGeographic
Space And Intelligence https://spaceandai.com
Recently, a giant crater nearly 31 kilometers wide has been discovered hidden below Greenland's ice. It was named Hiawatha Crater and according to scientists it's possibly as young as 12,000 to 15,000 years old and could therefore be an important new piece of evidence for the Younger Dryas impact hypothesis. This is an old video that we made years ago but due to copyright issues we had to edit and re-upload it, which gave us the opportunity to mention this discovery. https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/2018/11/impact-crater-found-under-hiawatha-glacier-greenland-ice
Dragons probably came from dinosaur fossils/skeletons... Ancient people who walked outside their whole lives would have certainly run in to them now and then and thought they were real extinct dragons. They might well have associated comets with dragons, but dragons themselves likely came from fossils.
Child marriages are common:
On a recent day, eight community elders sat in a [refugee] camp, some chewing khat, the narcotic leaf favored by most Yemeni men. Seven have married off their girls this year.
Even Salim, the elder who worked at the charity, is preparing to marry off his two daughters, ages 13 and 14. "I want to feel secure of their futures, if only for economic reasons," he said.
Mohammad Ali al-Ansi married off his two girls, ages 13 and 14, in April. "My heart is bleeding inside, but I was forced to do this," he said. "I have no job. Its difficult for me to feed my 10 children." He received $1,600 in dowry for each of his girls, he said. But after paying for their weddings and meeting other debts, the money has nearly run out. "If things get worse, theres no doubt Ill marry off my 12-year-old daughter," Ansi said.
More on Ansis 14-year-old daughter Fatma, married to 21-year-old Zaid:
Fatma spent her day cooking and washing clothes for her in-laws. When asked the name of her husbands family, Fatma didnt know it. She remembers her father telling her and her sister, Amal, that the family needed money. She remembers that Amal was in tears because her new husband was taking her to another region. The two sisters have not seen each other since their weddings.
"I am too young to be married," Fatma said. "I want to study. I want to learn how to write. I have sacrificed for my family," she continued, her voice dropping to a whisper.
Minutes later, her husband arrived at the tent, and Fatma went silent. He said Fatma was "at a good age to marry." When asked if she could attend school, he shook his head no. "Shes a little too old for school," he said.
Female sexual freedom among the Tuareg : Flora Drury has written up the sex habits of the Saharas Muslim Tuareg people based on the work by Henrietta Butler. Some excerpts:
Their men became known as the blue men of the Sahara because the dye from their distinctive indigo scarves rub off onto their faces giving them a mysterious air. The Tuareg evoke images of a long forgotten and romantic age.